Polish Round Table Agreement

Round Table TalksRound Table AgreementRound TablePolish Round Table TalksPolish Round TableRoundtable TalksPolish modelRound Table Negotiationsdemocratization of Polandin Poland
The Polish Round Table Talks took place in Warsaw, Poland from 6 February to 5 April 1989.wikipedia
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Lech Wałęsa

Lech WalesaWałęsaGdańsk Shipyard Strike
Following the factory strikes of the early 1980s and the subsequent formation of the (then still underground) Solidarity movement under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa, the political situation in Poland started relaxing somewhat.
Released from custody, he continued his activism and was prominent in the establishment of the 1989 Round Table Agreement that led to semi-free parliamentary elections in June 1989 and to a Solidarity-led government.

Solidarity (Polish trade union)

SolidaritySolidarnośćSolidarity movement
The government initiated the discussion with the banned trade union Solidarność and other opposition groups in an attempt to defuse growing social unrest.
The round table talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989.

1988 Polish strikes

Labor strikemassive waves of workers' strikesNationwide strikes
In September 1988, when a wave of strikes was coming to an end, a secret meeting was held which included Lech Wałęsa and Minister of Internal Affairs Czesław Kiszczak.
As a result, later that year, the regime decided to negotiate with the opposition, which opened way for the 1989 Round Table Agreement.

Wojciech Jaruzelski

JaruzelskiGeneral JaruzelskiPolish General and President Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski
The Polish communists, led by General Jaruzelski, hoped to co-opt prominent opposition leaders into the ruling group without making major changes in the political power structure.
He resigned after the Polish Round Table Agreement in 1989, which led to multi-party elections in Poland.

Czesław Kiszczak

Chief of secret police gen. Czesław KiszczakGeneral KiszczakKiszczak
In September 1988, when a wave of strikes was coming to an end, a secret meeting was held which included Lech Wałęsa and Minister of Internal Affairs Czesław Kiszczak.
But eight years later he presided over the country’s transition to democracy as its last communist prime minister and a co-chairman of the Round Table conference, in which officials of the ruling Polish United Workers' Party faced the democratic opposition leaders.

April Novelization

1989
April Novelization (Nowela kwietniowa) refers to the changes (constitutional amendments) to the 1952 Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland, agreed in April 1989, in the aftermath of the Polish Round Table Agreement.

Marek Edelman

Edelman, MarekMark Edelman
As a member of Solidarity, he took part in the Polish Round Table Talks of 1989.

Contract Sejm

semi-free electionsContractContract ''Sejm
The election of 4 June 1989 brought a landslide victory to Solidarność: 99% of all the seats in the Senate and all of the 35% possible seats in Sejm.
The contract refers to an agreement reached by the Polish United Workers' Party and the Solidarity (Solidarność in Polish) movement during the Polish Round Table Agreement.

Adam Michnik

Michnik played a crucial role during the Polish Round Table Talks, as a result of which the communists agreed to call elections in 1989, which were won by Solidarity.

Lech Kaczyński

Lech KaczynskiLechLech Aleksander Kaczyński
From February to April 1989, he participated in the Round Table talks.

Zbigniew Bujak

Soon afterwards he was released in general amnesty, and participated in Polish Round Table Talks with the government in 1989.

Bronisław Geremek

Bronislaw GeremekBronisław '''GeremekGeremek, Bronisław
In 1989 he played a crucial role during the debates between Solidarity and the authorities that led to free parliamentary elections and the establishment of the ‘Contract Sejm’.

Jan Olszewski

Olszewski
Janusz Korwin-Mikke claims that one of the results of the Round Table agreement was that both sides pledged that "right-wing parties would never be allowed to rule", and Jan Olszewski said that "basic issues had been settled before [the talks], and the negotiations at the Round Table were about secondary matters".
Olszewski, along with Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa and other anti-government dissidents, participated in the Round Table Talks in early 1989 with the ruling PZPR, where he served as the opposition's legal expert.

Polish United Workers' Party

First Secretary of the Central Committee of Polish United Workers' PartyPZPRPolish United Workers Party
Jaruzelski, whose name was the only one the Polish United Workers' Party allowed on the ballot for the presidency, won by just one vote in the National Assembly.
From 6 February to 15 April 1989, negotiations were held between 13 working groups during 94 sessions of the roundtable talks.

Andrzej Stelmachowski

A Lawyer, professor of University of Wrocław (from 1962) and University of Warsaw (from 1967), he was a Solidarity advisor in 1980 and took part in the Polish Round Table Agreement.

Aleksander Kwaśniewski

Aleksander KwasniewskiAlexander KwasniewskiKwasniewski
A participant in the Round-Table negotiations, he co-chaired the task group for trade-union pluralism with Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Romuald Sosnowski.

Zofia Kuratowska

In 1989, she took part in the Polish Round Table Agreement, and from there ran for the Senate in the first democratic elections.

Tadeusz Mazowiecki

first postwar non-communist governmentMazowieckiPoland
He firmly believed in the process of taking power from the ruling Polish United Workers' Party through negotiation and thus he played an active role in the Polish Round Table Talks, becoming one of the most important architects of the agreement by which partially free elections were held on 4 June 1989.

Bogdan Lis

In 1988 he was a participant of the Polish Round Table Agreement, and was elected to the Senate of Poland in the 1989 Polish legislative elections.

Mikołaj Kozakiewicz

Member of the Polish Round Table Agreement from the government side.

Jerzy Turowicz

He was a member of the Round Table negotiations during the Polish revolution in 1989, leading to the fall of communist regime in the country.

Józef Czyrek

Czyrek participated in round table talks between the ruling party and opposition figures that lasted from 6 February to 4 April 1989.

Marian Orzechowski

Orzechowski participated in round table talks between the ruling party and opposition figures that lasted from 6 February to 4 April 1989.

Mieczysław Rakowski

Mieczyslaw RakowskiMieczysław F. Rakowski
In June 1987 Mieczysław Rakowski, in a report handed to General Jaruzelski, wrote that a "change in the attitude towards the opposition must be initiated Maybe, out of numerous oppositional fractions, one movement would be selected and allowed to participate in the governing", wrote Rakowski.
He also played a part in the Polish transformation from state socialism to market capitalism, as his Communist-led government was forced to reform and he was one of the key players in the Polish Round Table Agreements.