Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish numeralsPolish verbsPolish-grammarPronounsregular declensionregular morphological changes
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).wikipedia
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Numeral (linguistics)

numeralnumeralsnumber names
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.
For example, in Slavic languages there are collective numbers which describe sets, such as pair or dozen in English (see Russian numerals, Polish numerals).

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.
In some of the Slavic languages, for example, within the masculine and sometimes feminine and neuter genders, there is a further division between animate and inanimate nouns – and in Polish, also sometimes between nouns denoting humans and non-humans.

Polish phonology

PolishPolish accentphonological
These developments are reflected in some regular morphological changes in Polish grammar, such as in noun declension.

Polish morphology

personal masculinePronouns
For full information on the declension of the above pronouns, see Pronouns in the article on Polish morphology.
For information on meanings and usage, see Pronouns in the article on Polish grammar.

Polish name

PolishPolish surnamesurname
For a table showing the declension of Polish adjectival surnames, ending in -ski/-ska or -cki/-cka, see Declension of adjectival surnames.
Plural forms of names rarely follow the patterns of regular declension, even if the name is identical with a common name.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Polish uses prepositions, which form phrases by preceding a noun or noun phrase.

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
Both types also have imperative and conditional forms.
For details see Polish verbs.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Polish language

PolishplPolish-language
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Fusional language

fusionalinflected languageinflected
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Word order

free word orderConstituent orderbasic word order
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Subject–verb–object

SVOsubject-verb-objectSVO word order
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
There are no articles, and there is frequent dropping of subject pronouns.

Quantifier (linguistics)

quantifiersquantifierquantification
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Nominative case

nominativenom.NOM
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).

Dative case

dativedat.DAT
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).

Accusative case

accusativeacc.ACC
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).