Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish-grammarPronounsregular declensionregular morphological changes
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).wikipedia
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Numeral (linguistics)

numeralnumeralsnumber names
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.
For example, in Slavic languages there are collective numbers which describe sets, such as pair or dozen in English (see Russian numerals, Polish numerals).

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.
In some of the Slavic languages, for example, within the masculine and sometimes feminine and neuter genders, there is a further division between animate and inanimate nouns – and in Polish, also sometimes between nouns denoting humans and non-humans.

Polish phonology

PolishPolish accentphonological
Some of these result from the restricted distribution of the vowels i and y, and from the voicing rules for consonants in clusters and at the end of words.
These developments are reflected in some regular morphological changes in Polish grammar, such as in noun declension.

Polish morphology

personal masculinePronouns
For the full declension of these pronouns, see Pronouns in the article on Polish morphology.
For information on meanings and usage, see Pronouns in the article on Polish grammar.

Polish name

PolishsurnamePolish surname
For a table showing the declension of Polish adjectival surnames, ending in -ski/-ska or -cki/-cka, see Declension of adjectival surnames.
Plural forms of names rarely follow the patterns of regular declension, even if the name is identical with a common name.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Polish uses prepositions, which form phrases by preceding a noun or noun phrase.
Polish: na stole ("on the table")

Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
2) The genitive is used for possessor and similar (equivalent to English "of X" or "X's"), for the direct object of negated verbs, as the object of some verbs and prepositions, as an object with partitive meaning and in some fixed expressions, and for nouns governed by certain numbers and expressions of quantity (see Numbers and quantifiers above).
Other examples of negating particles preceding the verb phrase include Italian non, Russian не nye and Polish nie (they can also be found in constructed languages: ne in Esperanto and non in Interlingua).

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
Both types also have imperative and conditional forms.
Polish forms the conditional mood in a similar way to Russian, using the particle by together with the past tense of the verb.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Polish language

Polishplpol.
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Fusional language

fusionalinflected languageinflected
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Word order

free word orderconstituent orderword-order
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Subject–verb–object

SVOsubject-verb-objectSVO word order
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
There are no articles, and there is frequent dropping of subject pronouns.

Quantifier (linguistics)

quantifiersquantifierquantification
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.

Alternation (linguistics)

alternationalternatealternations
Certain regular or common alternations apply across the Polish inflectional system, affecting the morphology of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and other parts of speech.

Palatalization (phonetics)

palatalizedpalatalizationpalatalisation
consonant changes caused by certain endings (such as the -ie of the locative case, and the -i of the masculine personal plural), which historically entailed palatalization of the preceding consonant, and now produce a number of different changes depending on which consonant is involved.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
Polish retains the Old Slavic system of cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

Nominative case

nominativenom.NOM
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).

Dative case

dativedat.DAT
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).

Accusative case

accusativeacc.ACC
There are seven cases: nominative (mianownik), genitive (dopełniacz), dative (celownik), accusative (biernik), instrumental (narzędnik), locative (miejscownik), and vocative (wołacz).