Polish language

Polishplpol.Polish-languagepl.polPolish:polonisedPolandPolish-speaking
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna, or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.wikipedia
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Poles

PolishPoleethnic Poles
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna, or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Poles (Polacy, ; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language.

West Slavic languages

West SlavicWestWest Slavic language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna, or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages written in Latin script.
They include Polish, Czech, Slovak, Silesian, Kashubian, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian.

Polish diaspora

PoloniaPolishPoles
Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries.
The Polish diaspora is also known in Modern Polish as Polonia, which is the name for Poland in Latin and in many Romance languages.

Polish alphabet

Polishaccented charactersdiacritic
Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script . Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.

Lechitic languages

LechiticLechitic languageLekhitic
It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages written in Latin script.
The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.

Slovak language

SlovakSlovakianSlovak-language
Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script . Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script . Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak.
This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak.

Languages of the European Union

EU languagesofficial languages of the European UnionLanguages of the EU
There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Polish Americans

PolishPolish immigrantsPolish-American
In the United States, Polish Americans number more than 11 million but most of them cannot speak Polish fluently.
In 2000, 667,414 Americans over 5 years old reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of the census groups who speak a language other than English or 0.25% of the U.S. population.

Vilnius

VilnaWilnoVilnius, Lithuania
Polish is the most widely used minority language in Lithuania's Vilnius County (26% of the population, according to the 2001 census results, with Vilnius having been part of Poland from 1922 until 1939) and is found elsewhere in southeastern Lithuania.
A variety of languages were spoken: Polish, German, Yiddish, Ruthenian, Lithuanian, Russian, Old Church Slavonic, Latin, Hebrew, and Turkic languages; the city was compared to Babylon.

Belarus

🇧🇾BLRBelarusian
It is also spoken as a second language in northern Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, western parts of Belarus and Ukraine, and central-western Lithuania.
In culture and social life, both the Polish language and Catholicism became dominant, and in 1696, Polish replaced Ruthenian as the official language—with the Ruthenian language being banned from administrative use.

Brest, Belarus

BrestBrest-LitovskBrisk
In Ukraine it is most common in western Lviv and Volyn Oblasts, while in West Belarus it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially in the Brest and Grodno regions and in areas along the Lithuanian border.
In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town was known in Polish as Brześć, historically Brześć Litewski (literally: "Lithuanian Brest", in contradistinction to Brześć Kujawski).

Kashubian language

KashubianCashubiancsb.
Kashubian, spoken in Pomerania west of Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea, is often considered a fifth dialect.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic lect belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.

Poland

🇵🇱PolishPOL
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna, or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads "Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai" ("Let me grind, and you take a rest"), reflecting the culture of early Poland.

Warsaw dialect

dialect of pre-war Warsaw
5) Some city dwellers, especially the less affluent population, had their own distinctive dialects - for example, the Warsaw dialect, still spoken by some of the population of Praga on the eastern bank of the Vistula. (Praga remained the only part of Warsaw where the population survived World War II relatively intact.) However, these city dialects are mostly extinct due to assimilation with standard Polish.
The Warsaw dialect (called Gwara warszawska in standard Polish, pronounced ), or Masovian, is a regional dialect of the Polish language centered on Warsaw.

Vlachs

VlachWallachianVlachian
1) The distinctive dialect of the Gorals (Góralski) occurs in the mountainous area bordering the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Gorals ("Highlanders") take great pride in their culture and the dialect. It exhibits some cultural influences from the Vlach shepherds who migrated from Wallachia (southern Romania) in the 14th–17th centuries.
In Polish and Hungarian, derivations of the term were also applied to Italians.

Baltic Sea

BalticBaltic coastthe Baltic
Kashubian, spoken in Pomerania west of Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea, is often considered a fifth dialect.
"Baltic Sea" is used in Modern English; in the Baltic languages Latvian (Baltijas jūra; in Old Latvian it was referred to as "the Big Sea", while the present day Gulf of Riga was referred to as "the Little Sea") and Lithuanian (Baltijos jūra); in Latin (Mare Balticum) and the Romance languages French (Mer Baltique), Italian (Mar Baltico), Portuguese (Mar Báltico), Romanian (Marea Baltică) and Spanish (Mar Báltico); in Greek (Βαλτική Θάλασσα Valtikí Thálassa); in Albanian (Deti Balltik); in Welsh (Môr Baltig); in the Slavic languages Polish (Morze Bałtyckie or Bałtyk), Czech (Baltské moře or Balt), Slovenian (Baltsko morje), Bulgarian (Балтийско море Baltijsko More), Kashubian (Bôłt), Macedonian (Балтичко Море Baltičko More), Ukrainian (Балтійське море Baltijs′ke More), Belarusian (Балтыйскае мора Baltyjskaje Mora), Russian (Балтийское море Baltiyskoye More) and Serbo-Croatian (Baltičko more / Балтичко море); in Hungarian (Balti-tenger).

Poznań

PosenPoznanPosen (Poznań)
2) The Poznanski dialect, spoken in Poznań and to some extent in the whole region of the former Prussian Partition (excluding Upper Silesia), with noticeable German influences.
The name Poznań probably comes from a personal name, Poznan, (from the Polish participle poznan(y) – "one who is known/recognized"), and would mean "Poznan's town".

Polish phonology

PolishPolish accentphonological
For details, see Voicing and devoicing in the article on Polish phonology.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.

Illinois

ILState of IllinoisIll.
The largest concentrations of Polish speakers reported in the census (over 50%) were found in three states: Illinois (185,749), New York (111,740), and New Jersey (74,663).
A sizeable number of Polish speakers is present in the Chicago Metropolitan Area.

New Jersey

NJState of New JerseyJersey
The largest concentrations of Polish speakers reported in the census (over 50%) were found in three states: Illinois (185,749), New York (111,740), and New Jersey (74,663).
Polish – Bergen County (Garfield, Wallington); Mercer County (Top Road, Lawrence Township, Hopewell); Linden

Affricate consonant

Affricateaffricatesaffrication
The Polish consonant system shows more complexity: its characteristic features include the series of affricate and palatal consonants that resulted from four Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further palatalizations that took place in Polish and Belarusian.
The English sounds spelled "ch" and "j" (broadly transcribed as and in the IPA), German and Italian z and Italian z are typical affricates, and sounds like these are fairly common in the world's languages, as are other affricates with similar sounds, such as those in Polish and Chinese.

Former eastern territories of Germany

eastern Germanyformer eastern territorieseastern territories
The Polish language became far more homogeneous in the second half of the 20th century, in part due to the mass migration of several million Polish citizens from the eastern to the western part of the country after the Soviet annexation of the Kresy (Eastern Borderlands) in 1939, and the annexation of former German territory after World War II. This tendency toward a homogeneity also stems from the vertically integrated nature of the Polish People's Republic.
At the turn of the 20th century there lived about 14,200 persons of Polish mother-tongue in the Province of Pomerania (in the east of Farther Pomerania in the vicinity of the border with West Prussia), and 300 persons using the Kashubian language (at the Leba Lake and the Garde Lake), the total population of the province consisting of almost 1.7 million inhabitants.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
Because of the emigration from Poland during different time periods, most notably after World War II, millions of Polish speakers can be found in countries such as Israel, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States and New Zealand.
As a result of immigration, Polish is the most widely spoken language in Ireland after English, with Irish as the third most spoken.

United Kingdom

British🇬🇧UK
Because of the emigration from Poland during different time periods, most notably after World War II, millions of Polish speakers can be found in countries such as Israel, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States and New Zealand.
According to the 2011 census, Polish has become the second-largest language spoken in England and has 546,000 speakers.