Polish phonology

PolishPolish accentphonologicalPolish phonemesrestricted distributionVoicing and devoicing
For less technical descriptions of the Polish sounds presented here, see Polish alphabet and Help:IPA/Polish.wikipedia
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Polish language

Polishplpol.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
For details, see Voicing and devoicing in the article on Polish phonology.

Allophone

allophonicallophonesallophony
In some phonological descriptions of Polish that make a phonemic distinction between palatized and unpalatized labials, and may thus be treated as allophones of a single phoneme.
Polish

Standard Chinese phonology

tonefour tonesneutral tone
However, they are more accurately described as retroflex, although they are laminal (like the retroflexes of Standard Chinese).
The retroflex consonants (like those of Polish) are actually apical rather than subapical, and so are considered by some authors not to be truly retroflex; they may be more accurately called post-alveolar.

Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish-grammar
These developments are reflected in some regular morphological changes in Polish grammar, such as in noun declension.
Some of these result from the restricted distribution of the vowels i and y, and from the voicing rules for consonants in clusters and at the end of words.

Polish orthography

Polishcharacter encodingsHistory of Polish orthography
Each vowel represents one syllable, although the letter i normally does not represent a vowel when it precedes another vowel (it represents, palatalization of the preceding consonant, or both depending on analysis; see Polish orthography and the above).
For detailed information about the system of phonemes, see Polish phonology.

Palatal nasal

ɲȵalveolo-palatal
The phoneme may be written with the non-standard symbol to indicate that it is alveolo-palatal, because represents a palatal nasal in standard IPA.

Nasal palatal approximant

J̃ j̃ j̇̃J̃ j̇̃nasalized palatal approximant
Similarly, the palatal nasal in coda position is in free variation with a nasalized palatal approximant.

Polish alphabet

Polishaccented charactersdiacritic
Polish alphabet
The following table lists the letters of the alphabet, their Polish names (see also Names of letters below), the Polish phonemes which they usually represent, rough English (or other) equivalents to the sounds of those phonemes, and other possible pronunciations.

Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

lalveolar lateral approximantdark L
Some eastern dialects also preserve the velarized dental lateral approximant, which corresponds with in standard Polish.

Voiced glottal fricative

ɦglottal fricativevoiced
In some Polish dialects (found in the eastern borderlands and in Upper Silesia) there is an additional voiced glottal fricative, represented by the letter.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.

Nasal vowel

nasalnasal vowelsnasalized
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.

Vowel

vowelsvowel heightV
The vowel system is relatively simple, with just six oral monophthongs and two nasals, while the consonant system is much more complex.

Monophthong

monophthongspure vowelglide-deleting
The vowel system is relatively simple, with just six oral monophthongs and two nasals, while the consonant system is much more complex.

John C. Wells

John WellsWellsJ. C. Wells
is open-mid front unrounded . According to the British phonetician John C. Wells, it is often noticeably centralized, i.e. somewhat closer to a central vowel.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
Phonetically, they consist of an oral vowel followed by a nasal semivowel (so that są is pronounced, which sounds closer to Portuguese são than French sont – all three words mean "[they] are").

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Phonetically, they consist of an oral vowel followed by a nasal semivowel (so that są is pronounced, which sounds closer to Portuguese são than French sont – all three words mean "[they] are").

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Phonetically, they consist of an oral vowel followed by a nasal semivowel (so that są is pronounced, which sounds closer to Portuguese são than French sont – all three words mean "[they] are").

Diphthong

diphthongsfalling diphthongrising diphthong
Therefore, they are phonetically diphthongs.

Complementary distribution

complimentaryconditional allophonesconditioned variation
The vowels and have largely complementary distribution.

Labial consonant

LabiallabialsBilabial
Either vowel may follow a labial consonant, as in mi ('to me') and my ('we').

Palatal consonant

Palatalpalatalspalatal consonants
Elsewhere, however, is usually restricted to word-initial position and positions after palatal consonants and the palatalized velars, while cannot appear in those positions (see § Hard and soft consonants below).