Politeness

politeimpolitepolitelyMiss Philippines Congeniality 2009positive politeness
[[Image:Politeness - Punch cartoon - Project Gutenberg eText 16619.png|thumb|True Politeness.wikipedia
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Rudeness

rudeeffronteryimpolite
It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context.
Forms of rudeness include acting inconsiderate, insensitive, deliberately offensive, impolite, a faux pas, obscenity, profanity and violating taboos such as deviancy.

English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries

coffeehouseCoffee Housecoffee houses
The art of polite conversation and debate was particularly cultivated in the coffeehouses of the period.
The language of polite and civil conversation was considered to be essential to the conduct of coffeehouse debate and conversation.

Tag question

tag questionsquestion tagtag-question
Preferring tag questions to direct statements, such as "You were at the store, weren't you?"
They can be an indicator of politeness, hedging, consensus seeking, emphasis and/or irony.

Lie

lyingwhite liefabrication
Polite lying
A polite lie is a lie that a politeness standard requires, and which is usually known to be untrue by both parties.

Courtesy

courtlydiscourteousCourteousness
Courtesy
Courtesy (from the word courteis, from the 12th century) is gentle politeness and courtly manners.

Politeness theory

politenessBrown and Levinson's politeness theorypoliteness strategies
Politeness theory
Although politeness has been studied in a variety of cultures for many years, Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson's politeness theory has become very influential.

Politeness maxims

Principle of Politeness
Politeness maxims (Geoffrey Leech)
According to Geoffrey Leech, there is a politeness principle with conversational maxims similar to those formulated by Paul Grice.

Languages of East Asia

East Asian LanguagesEast Asian languageEast Asians
Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness has been criticised as not being universally valid, by linguists working with East-Asian languages, including Japanese.
Linguistic systems of politeness, including frequent use of honorifics, with varying levels of politeness or respect, are well-developed in Japanese and Korean.

Formality

formalFormal feelingformalities
Formality
The difference between formality and politeness is often a point of confusion for those from relatively informal cultures.

Punch (magazine)

PunchPunch'' magazinePunch magazine
Cartoon in Punch magazine: 28 July 1920]]

Etiquette

mannersprotocolpropriety
Politeness is the practical application of good manners or etiquette.

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context.

Cultural relativism

cultural relativistcultural relativitycultural
It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context.

Shame

shamingashamedshameful
While the goal of politeness is to make all of the parties relaxed and comfortable with one another, these culturally defined standards at times may be manipulated to inflict shame on a designated party.

Penelope Brown

Brown
Anthropologists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson identified two kinds of politeness, deriving from Erving Goffman's concept of face:

Stephen Levinson

LevinsonLevinson, Stephen C.S. C. Levinson
Anthropologists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson identified two kinds of politeness, deriving from Erving Goffman's concept of face:

Erving Goffman

GoffmanStigma
Anthropologists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson identified two kinds of politeness, deriving from Erving Goffman's concept of face:

Face (sociological concept)

facesave facelose face
Anthropologists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson identified two kinds of politeness, deriving from Erving Goffman's concept of face:

Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech act
Negative politeness: Making a request less infringing, such as "If you don't mind..." or "If it isn't too much trouble..."; respects a person's right to act freely. In other words, deference. There is a greater use of indirect speech acts.

Profanity

swearingprofanitiesprofane
Positive politeness: Seeks to establish a positive relationship between parties; respects a person's need to be liked and understood. Direct speech acts, swearing and flouting Grice's maxims can be considered aspects of positive politeness because:

Cooperative principle

conversational maximconversational maximsmaxim of quantity
Positive politeness: Seeks to establish a positive relationship between parties; respects a person's need to be liked and understood. Direct speech acts, swearing and flouting Grice's maxims can be considered aspects of positive politeness because:

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
During the Enlightenment era, a self-conscious process of the imposition of polite norms and behaviours became a symbol of being a genteel member of the upper class.

Upper class

upper-classhigh societyupper
During the Enlightenment era, a self-conscious process of the imposition of polite norms and behaviours became a symbol of being a genteel member of the upper class.

Middle class

middle-classmiddlemiddle classes
Upwardly mobile middle class bourgeoisie increasingly tried to identify themselves with the elite through their adopted artistic preferences and their standards of behaviour.

Bourgeoisie

bourgeoisburgherburghers
Upwardly mobile middle class bourgeoisie increasingly tried to identify themselves with the elite through their adopted artistic preferences and their standards of behaviour.