Political corruption

corruptioncorruptAnti-corruptiongovernment corruptiongraftkickbackskickbackpoliticalpublic corruptionofficial corruption
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.wikipedia
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Patronage

patronpatronspatron of the arts
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement.
As well, the term may refer to a type of corruption or favoritism in which a party in power rewards groups, families, ethnicities for their electoral support using illegal gifts or fraudulently awarded appointments or government contracts.

Graft (politics)

graftadministrative graftanti-graft
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement.
Graft, as understood in American English, is a form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain.

Extortion

extortextortingextorted
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement.
In law extortion can refer to political corruption, such as selling one's office or influence peddling, but in general vocabulary the word usually first brings to mind blackmail or protection rackets.

Organized crime

mobunderworldcriminal organization
Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking, though it is not restricted to these activities.
Organized crime groups also do a range of business and labor racketeering activities, such as skimming casinos, insider trading, setting up monopolies in industries such as garbage collecting, construction and cement pouring, bid rigging, getting "no-show" and "no-work" jobs, political corruption and bullying.

Banking in Switzerland

Swiss bankSwiss bank accountSwiss banks
Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in Africa, corruption has primarily taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather than invested at home (hence the stereotypical, but often accurate, image of African dictators having Swiss bank accounts).
Swiss banks have served as safe havens for the wealth of dictators, despots, mobsters, arms dealers, corrupt officials, and tax cheats of all kinds.

Bribery

bribebribesbribing
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement.
As indicated on the pages devoted to political corruption, efforts have been made in recent years by the international community to encourage countries to dissociate and incriminate as separate offences, active and passive bribery.

Lobbying

lobbyistlobbylobbyists
It can be difficult to make a distinction between this form of corruption and some forms of extreme and loosely regulated lobbying where for instance law- or decision-makers can freely "sell" their vote, decision power or influence to those lobbyists who offer the highest compensation, including where for instance the latter act on behalf of powerful clients such as industrial groups who want to avoid the passing of specific environmental, social, or other regulations perceived as too stringent, etc. Where lobbying is (sufficiently) regulated, it becomes possible to provide for a distinctive criteria and to consider that trading in influence involves the use of "improper influence", as in article 12 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173) of the Council of Europe.
Lobbying can, at times, be spoken of with contempt, when the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests.

Good governance

governancegood governmenteffective governance
In politics, corruption undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes.
It uses six dimensions of governance for their measurements, Voice & Accountability, Political Stability and Lack of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption.

Africa

African continentAfricanAfrican politics
Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in Africa, corruption has primarily taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather than invested at home (hence the stereotypical, but often accurate, image of African dictators having Swiss bank accounts).
Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders.

Follow the money

money trailMoney loopkickback
A kickback is an official's share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding.
"Follow the money" is a catchphrase popularized by the 1976 drama-documentary motion picture All the President's Men, which suggests political corruption can be brought to light by examining money transfers between parties.

Famine

faminesfood shortagesfood crisis
While drought and other naturally occurring events may trigger famine conditions, it is government action or inaction that determines its severity, and often even whether or not a famine will occur.
Numerous factors make the food security situation in Africa tenuous, including political instability, armed conflict and civil war, corruption and mismanagement in handling food supplies, and trade policies that harm African agriculture.

Rule of law

the rule of lawlegal forcerule
Corruption in elections and in the legislature reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of law; and corruption in public administration results in the inefficient provision of services. These countries score high on the Ease of Doing Business Index, due to good and often simple regulations and have rule of law firmly established.
It is useful to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: corruption by the executive branch, in contrast to corruption by private actors.

Civil service reform in developing countries

public sector reformcivil servicecivil service reform
Such actions can include data gathering and analysis, organizational restructuring, improving human resource management and training, enhancing pay and benefits while assuring sustainability under overall fiscal constraints, and strengthening measures for performance management, public participation, transparency, and combating corruption.

Ease of doing business index

ease of doing businessDoing Business ReportDoing Business
These countries score high on the Ease of Doing Business Index, due to good and often simple regulations and have rule of law firmly established.
The main findings of the paper were that: "Countries with heavier regulation of entry have higher corruption and larger unofficial economies, but no better quality of public or private goods. Countries with more democratic and limited governments have lighter regulation of entry."

Corruption

corruptsystemic corruptionanti-corruption
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement.
Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.

Fraud

defraudfraudsterfraudulent
Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about an election result, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.

Kickback (bribery)

kickbackskickbackkickback scheme
Corruption also generates economic distortion in the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks are more plentiful.

Global Witness

Global Witness is an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide.

Illegal drug trade

drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking, though it is not restricted to these activities.
This political corruption obscured justice, making it difficult to identify violence when it related to drugs.

Group of States Against Corruption

GRECO
To monitor the implementation at national level of the requirements and principles provided in those texts, a monitoring mechanism – the Group of States Against Corruption (also known as GRECO) (French: Groupe d'Etats contre la corruption) was created.
The Group of States against Corruption (groupe d'États contre la corruption, GRECO), the Council of Europe’s anti-corruption monitoring body with its Headquarters in Strasbourg (France),

The Government Inspector

RevizorThe Inspector GeneralRevisor
Based upon an anecdote allegedly recounted to Gogol by Pushkin, the play is a comedy of errors, satirizing human greed, stupidity, and the extensive political corruption of Imperial Russia.

Millennium Challenge Corporation

Millennium Challenge AccountMillenimum ChallengeMillennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
Despite these weaknesses, the global coverage of these datasets has led to their widespread adoption, most notably by the Millennium Challenge Corporation.
The Bush administration has stated its belief that development aid works better in countries with good economic policies, such as free markets and low corruption.

Gombeen man

GombeenGombeenism
Gombeenism refers to an individual who is dishonest and corrupt for the purpose of personal gain, more often through monetary, while, parochialism which is also known as parish pump politics relates to placing local or vanity projects ahead of the national interest.

Worldwide Governance Indicators

governance indicators worldwideThe World Bank’s Worldwide Governance IndicatorsVoice and accountability
Moreover, one of the six dimensions of governance measured by the Worldwide Governance Indicators is Control of Corruption, which is defined as "the extent to which power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as 'capture' of the state by elites and private interests."
Based on a long-standing research program of the World Bank, the Worldwide Governance Indicators capture six key dimensions of governance (Voice & Accountability, Political Stability and Lack of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption) between 1996 and present.

Civil service

civil servantpublic servantcivil servants
But the political appointment of bureaucrats can run the risk of tolerating inefficiency and corruption, with officials feeling secure in the protection of their political masters and possibly immune from prosecution for bribe-taking.