Political economy

political economistpolitical economicspolitical economistspolitical economiccritique of political economypolitical economieseconomiceconomicspolitical-economicpolitico-economic
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.wikipedia
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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas MalthusMalthusRobert Malthus
The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781).
Thomas Robert Malthus (13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

Adam Smith

SmithA SmithAdam Smith’s
The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781). Leading on from this, the French physiocrats were the first major exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats generally receives much greater attention.
Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment, also known as or.

David Ricardo

RicardoRicardianDavid Ricardo,MP
The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781). Leading on from this, the French physiocrats were the first major exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats generally receives much greater attention.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

Marxian economics

MarxianMarxian economistMarxist economics
From an academic standpoint, the term may reference Marxian economics, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school.
Its foundations can be traced back to the critique of classical political economy in the research by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
In the late 19th century, the term "economics" gradually began to replace the term "political economy" with the rise of mathematical modelling coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Political economy most commonly refers to interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics, sociology and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system—capitalist, socialist, communist, or mixed—influence each other.
The discipline was renamed in the late 19th century, primarily due to Alfred Marshall, from "political economy" to "economics" as a shorter term for "economic science".

Virginia school of political economy

Virginia SchoolBranch of economists
From an academic standpoint, the term may reference Marxian economics, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school.
The Virginia School of political economy is a school of economic thought originating in universities of Virginia (University of Virginia, Virginia Tech, and George Mason University) in the 1950s and 1960s, mainly focusing on public choice theory, constitutional economics, and law and economics.

William Stanley Jevons

JevonsStanley JevonsWilliam Jevons
Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science".
Jevons broke off his studies of the natural sciences in London in 1854 to work as an assayer in Sydney, where he acquired an interest in political economy.

Henry George

GeorgistGeorgeHenry George O'Shea
Leading on from this, the French physiocrats were the first major exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats generally receives much greater attention.
Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.

John Stuart Mill

MillJ.S. MillJ. S. Mill
Leading on from this, the French physiocrats were the first major exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats generally receives much greater attention.
One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy.

Political science

political scientistPolitical Sciencespolitical analyst
Political economy most commonly refers to interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics, sociology and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system—capitalist, socialist, communist, or mixed—influence each other.
Political science—occasionally called politicology—comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics, political economy, international relations, political theory, public administration, public policy, and political methodology.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
Political economy most commonly refers to interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics, sociology and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system—capitalist, socialist, communist, or mixed—influence each other.
Economists, political economists, sociologists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice.

International political economy

international economyglobal political economyglobal political institutions
The Journal of Economic Literature classification codes associate political economy with three sub-areas: (1) the role of government and/or class and power relationships in resource allocation for each type of economic system; (2) international political economy, which studies the economic impacts of international relations; and (3) economic models of political or exploitative class processes.
International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics or an interdisciplinary academic discipline that analyzes economics, politics and international relations.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Leading on from this, the French physiocrats were the first major exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats generally receives much greater attention.
During the time that he lived at 38 Rue Vanneau in Paris (from October 1843 until January 1845), Marx engaged in an intensive study of political economy (Adam Smith, David Ricardo, James Mill, etc.), the French socialists (especially Claude Henri St. Simon and Charles Fourier) and the history of France.

Antoine de Montchrestien

Antoine de Montchrétien
The phrase économie politique (translated in English as "political economy") first appeared in France in 1615 with the well-known book by Antoine de Montchrétien, Traité de l’economie politique.
In the history of economic thought, it is the first use of 'political economy' in the title of a work claiming to be a treatise.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

Elinor Ostrom

OstromDr. Elinor OstromE Ostrom
Description and preview. • Ostrom, Elinor (1990).
Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom (née Awan; August 7, 1933 – June 12, 2012) was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy.

Institutionalist political economy

American Institutionalist Schoolinstitutional political economyinstitutionalism
Topics have included the breakup of nations, the origins and rate of change of political institutions in relation to economic growth, development, financial markets and regulation, the importance of institutions, backwardness, reform and transition economies, the role of culture, ethnicity and gender in explaining economic outcomes, macroeconomic policy, the environment, • Dietz, Simon, Jonathan Michie, and Christine Oughton (2011).
Institutionalist political economy, also known as institutional political economy or IPE, refers to a body of political economy, thought to stem from the works of institutionalists such as Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Wesley Mitchell and John Dewey.

Review of Radical Political Economics

radical political economics
Much of the political economy approach is derived from public choice theory on the one hand and radical political economics on the other hand, both dating from the 1960s.
It was established in 1968 and covers research on heterodox economics and political economy, broadly defined.

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn KhaldounIbn Khaldūna fourteenth century Muslim historian
Other contemporary scholars derive the roots of this study to the 13th Century Tunisian Arab Historian and Sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, for his work on making the distinction between "profit" and "sustenance", in modern political economy terms, surplus and that required for the reproduction of classes respectively.
Ibn Khaldun outlines an early example of political economy.

François Quesnay

QuesnayFrancois Quesnay François Quesnay
The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781).

New political economy

New Political Economy (NPE) is a relatively recent sub-school within the field of political economy.

Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory)

capitalist mode of productioncapitalismcapitalist
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies.

Karl Polanyi

Karl PolányiPolanyi, KarlKarl
Karl Paul Polanyi (Polányi Károly ; October 25, 1886 – April 23, 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, economic sociologist, political economist, historical sociologist and social philosopher.

Government failure

government succeedsGovernment successinstitutional failures
Description and preview. and in examining phenomena beyond economics' standard remit, such as government failure and complex decision making in which context the term "positive political economy" is common.
558–578. Abstract. Reprinted in Economic Efficiency in Law and Economics," pp. 164-87. • Clifford Winston (2006). Government Failure versus Market Failure: Microeconomics Policy Research and Government Performance''. Brookings Institution Press. Link. in such areas as development economics, ecological economics, political science, political economy, public choice theory, and transaction-cost economics.

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

TurgotAnne-Robert-Jacques TurgotAnne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune
The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781).