Politicians (Kissinger, Nixon, Ford, Haig) in the Oval Office discussing Representative Ford's nomination as the Vice President
Nineteenth-century painting by Philipp Foltz depicting the Athenian politician Pericles delivering his famous funeral oration in front of the Assembly.

Person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking an elected office in government.

- Politician

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April 7

451 – Attila the Hun captures Metz in France, killing most of its inhabitants and burning the town.

Invasion of Attila the Hun in Gaul (451)

1946 – Dimitrij Rupel, Slovenian politician and diplomate

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin by Joseph Duplessis, 1778
La scuola della economia e della morale sketch of Franklin, 1825
Benjamin Franklin (center) at work on a printing press. Reproduction of a Charles Mills painting by the Detroit Publishing Company.
William Franklin (1730-1813), son of Benjamin Franklin
Franklin's The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle (January 1741)
Robert Feke's 1748 painting of Franklin
This Join, or Die by Franklin urged the colonies to join the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War). It later served as a symbol of colonial freedom during the American Revolution.
In 1751, Franklin co-founded Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, one of the first hospitals in the United States (depicted in this engaving by William Strickland, 1755)
Seal of the College of Philadelphia
Sketch of the original Tun Tavern
First U. S. postage stamp, issue of 1847, honoring Benjamin Franklin.
Pass, signed by Postmaster General Benjamin Franklin, gave William Goddard the authority to travel as needed to investigate and inspect postal routes and protect the mail.
Pennsylvania colonial currency printed by Franklin and David Hall in 1764
Franklin in London, 1767, wearing a blue suit with elaborate gold braid and buttons, a far cry from the simple dress he affected at the French court in later years. Painting by David Martin, displayed in the White House.
John Trumbull depicts the Committee of Five presenting their work to the Congress.
Franklin, in his fur hat, charmed the French with what they perceived as rustic New World genius.
While in France, Franklin designed and commissioned Augustin Dupré to engrave the medallion Libertas Americana, minted in Paris in 1783.
Franklin's return to Philadelphia, 1785, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
Gouverneur Morris signs the Constitution before Washington. Franklin is behind Morris. Painting by Hintermeister, 1925.
Franklin's grave, Philadelphia
Benjamin Franklin Drawing Electricity from the Sky c. 1816 at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, by Benjamin West
Franklin and Electricity vignette engraved by the BEP (c. 1860)
An illustration from Franklin's paper on "Water-spouts and Whirlwinds"
A bust of Franklin by Jean-Antoine Houdon, 1778
Voltaire blessing Franklin's grandson, in the name of God and Liberty, by Pedro Américo, 1889–90
Benjamin Franklin by Hiram Powers
Dr Richard Price, the radical minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church, holding a letter from Franklin
Franklin bust in the Archives Department of Columbia University in New York City
Glass harmonica
Franklin on the Series 2009 hundred dollar bill
Marble memorial statue, Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
commemorative stamps
Life-size bronze statue of Benjamin Franklin (seated with cane) in the National Constitution Center, Philadelphia

Benjamin Franklin ( – April 17, 1790) was an American polymath who was active as a writer, scientist, inventor, statesman, diplomat, printer, publisher, and political philosopher. Among the leading intellectuals of his time, Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, a drafter and signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, and the first United States Postmaster General.


Economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

Cosimo de' Medici, who managed to build an international financial empire and was one of the first Medici bankers
A painting of a French seaport from 1638 at the height of mercantilism
Robert Clive with the Nawabs of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey which began the British rule in India
The Watt steam engine, a steam engine fuelled primarily by coal propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
The gold standard formed the financial basis of the international economy from 1870 to 1914.
The New York stock exchange traders' floor (1963)
Many analysts assert that China is one of the main examples of state capitalism in the 21st century.
The economic model of supply and demand states that the price P of a product is determined by a balance between production at each price (supply S) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand D): the diagram shows a positive shift in demand from D1 to D2, resulting in an increase in price (P) and quantity sold (Q) of the product.
Adam Smith
The subscription room at Lloyd's of London in the early 19th century
An industrial worker among heavy steel machine parts (Kinex Bearings, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
The Industrial Workers of the World poster "Pyramid of Capitalist System" (1911)

In his view, transactions in a market economy are voluntary and that the wide diversity that voluntary activity permits is a fundamental threat to repressive political leaders and greatly diminishes their power to coerce.


System of thought and behavior originating in ancient China.

Temple of Confucius of Jiangyin, Wuxi, Jiangsu. This is a wénmiào (文庙), that is to say a temple where Confucius is worshipped as Wéndì, "God of Culture" (文帝).
Gates of the wénmiào of Datong, Shanxi
Confucius in a fresco from a Western Han tomb in Dongping, Shandong
Zhou dynasty oracular version of the grapheme for Tiān, representing a man with a head informed by the north celestial pole
Like other symbols such as the sauwastika, wàn 卍 ("all things") in Chinese, the Mesopotamian 𒀭 Dingir/An ("Heaven"), and also the Chinese 巫 wū ("shaman"; in Shang script represented by the cross potent ☩), Tiān refers to the northern celestial pole (北極 Běijí), the pivot and the vault of the sky with its spinning constellations. Here is an approximate representation of the Tiānmén 天門 ("Gate of Heaven") or Tiānshū 天樞 ("Pivot of Heaven") as the precessional north celestial pole, with α Ursae Minoris as the pole star, with the spinning Chariot constellations in the four phases of time. According to Reza Assasi's theories, the wan may not only be centred in the current precessional pole at α Ursae Minoris, but also very near to the north ecliptic pole if Draco (Tiānlóng 天龙) is conceived as one of its two beams.
Worship at the Great Temple of Lord Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng Huī gōng dàdiàn), the cathedral ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage corporation, at their ancestral home in Qinghe, Hebei
Ancestral temple of the Zeng lineage and Houxian village cultural centre, Cangnan, Zhejiang
Temple of Confucius in Dujiangyan, Chengdu, Sichuan
Korean Confucian rite in Jeju
Fourteenth of The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars
Priest paying homage to Confucius's tablet, c. 1900
The dragon is one of the oldest symbols of Chinese religious culture. It symbolises the supreme godhead, Di or Tian, at the north ecliptic pole, around which it coils itself as the homonymous constellation. It is a symbol of the "protean" supreme power which has in itself both yin and yang.
Birthplaces of notable Chinese philosophers of the Hundred Schools of Thought in Zhou dynasty. Confucians are marked by triangles in dark red.
A Temple of the God of Culture (文庙 wénmiào) in Liuzhou, Guangxi, where Confucius is worshiped as Wéndì (文帝), "God of Culture"
Temple of the Filial Blessing (孝佑宫 Xiàoyòugōng), an ancestral temple of a lineage church, in Wenzhou, Zhejiang
Yushima Seidō in Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan
Life and Works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687

Examples of such xiaoren individuals may range from those who continually indulge in sensual and emotional pleasures all day to the politician who is interested merely in power and fame; neither sincerely aims for the long-term benefit of others.


Culturally intertwined with.

Christianity – Percentage of population by country (2014 data)
This T-and-O map, which abstracts the then known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the center of the world.
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (AD 325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Spread of Christianity by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity up to AD 325)
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna.
Picture of Christ in Majesty contained in an illuminated manuscript.
There are few old ceramic icons, such as this St. Theodor icon which dates to ca. 900 (from Preslav, Bulgaria).
The structure of a typical Gothic cathedral.
Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. Since these Christians believed God imbued the universe with regular geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.
Relative geographic prevalence of Christianity versus Islam versus lack of either religion (2006).

The specific relationship between the political leaders and the clergy varied but, in theory, the national and political divisions were at times subsumed under the leadership of the church as an institution.

Konstantinos Kanaris

Greek admiral, Prime Minister, and a hero of the Greek War of Independence.

Konstantinos Kanaris, Prime Minister of Greece.
Konstantinos Kanaris during the Greek War of Independence. Lithography by Karl Krazeisen, 1831.
The burning of the Turkish flagship by Kanaris. Painting by Nikiforos Lytras, 1873.
After the destruction of Psara. Painting by Nikolaos Gyzis, 1898.
Statue of Konstantinos Kanaris in Kypseli, Athens.
Grave of Konstantinos and Despoina Kanaris in the First Cemetery of Athens.
Silver urn containing the heart of Konstantinos Kanaris at the National Historical Museum, Athens.
Greek one drachma coin featuring the portrait of Konstantinos Kanaris.
Elli-class frigate Kanaris (F464) of the Hellenic Navy.

After the end of the War and the independence of Greece, Kanaris became an officer of the new Hellenic Navy, reaching the rank of admiral, and became a prominent politician.

Edmund Burke

Portrait by Joshua Reynolds, c. 1769
Edmund Burke
In A Vindication of Natural Society, Burke argued: "The writers against religion, whilst they oppose every system, are wisely careful never to set up any of their own."
The Gregories estate purchased by Burke for £20,000 in 1768
In Cincinnatus in Retirement (1782), James Gillray caricatured Burke's support of rights for Catholics
Smelling out a Rat;—or—The Atheistical-Revolutionist disturbed in his Midnight "Calculations" (1790) by Gillray, depicting a caricature of Burke holding a crown and a cross while the seated man Richard Price is writing "On the Benefits of Anarchy Regicide Atheism" beneath a picture of the execution of Charles I of England
Reflections on the Revolution in France, And on the Proceedings in Certain Societies in London Relative to that Event. In a Letter Intended to Have Been Sent to a Gentleman in Paris. By the Right Honourable Edmund Burke
Charles James Fox
Statue of Edmund Burke in Washington, D.C.

Edmund Burke (12 January NS 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Irish-born British statesman, economist, and philosopher.

Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake (c.

Portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, 1591
Portrait miniature by Nicholas Hilliard, 1581, reverse of "Drake Jewel", inscribed Aetatis suae 42, An(n)o D(omi)ni 1581 ("42 years of his age, 1581 AD")
A map of Drake's route around the world. The northern limit of Drake's exploration of the Pacific coast of North America is still in dispute. Drake's Bay is south of Cape Mendocino.
A replica of the Golden Hind at Bankside in London
Drake's landing in California, engraving published 1590 by Theodor de Bry
Drake viewing treasure taken from a Spanish ship, print courtesy New York Public Library
The "Drake Jewel" as painted by Gheeraerts the Younger in a 1591 portrait of Drake
Buckland Abbey in Devon
Map of Drake's Great Expedition in 1585 by Giovanni Battista Boazio
Drake's burial at sea off Portobello. Bronze plaque by Joseph Boehm, 1883, base of Drake statue, Tavistock.
Arms of Sir Francis Drake: Sable, a fess wavy between two pole-stars Arctic and Antarctic argent
Arms of Drake of Ash: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules.<ref name="Vivian 1895, p.292">Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p. 292, pedigree of Drake of Ash</ref> The Drake family of Crowndale and Buckland Abbey used the same arms but the tail of the wyvern is not nowed (knotted)<ref name="Vivian p.299">Vivian, p.299, pedigree of Drake of Crowndale and Buckland Abbey</ref>
Sir Francis Drake with his new heraldic achievement, with motto: Sic Parvis Magna, translated literally: "Thus great things from small things (come)". The hand out of the clouds is labelled Auxilio Divino, or "With Divine Help"<ref name=NationalTrust>{{cite web |url=http://www.nationaltrustimages.org.uk/image/169478 |title=Image details |publisher=National Trust Images |access-date=25 October 2012 |archive-date=3 September 2012 |archive-url=https://archive.today/20120903192626/http://www.nationaltrustimages.org.uk/image/169478 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Sir Francis Drake whilst playing bowls on Plymouth Hoe is informed of the approach of the Spanish Armada. Bronze plaque by Joseph Boehm, 1883, base of Drake statue, Tavistock
Eighteenth century portrait of the Spanish Armada by Philip James de Loutherbourg
Drake taking the surrender of Admiral Pedro de Valdés on the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora del Rosario
This portrait, circa 1581, may have been copied from Hilliard's [[:Image:Sfdrake42.jpg|miniature]]—note the similar shirt—and the somewhat oddly-proportioned body, added by an artist who did not have access to Drake. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Bronze statue in Tavistock, in the parish of which he was born, by Joseph Boehm, 1883.
Drake Jewel, on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London

1540 – 28 January 1596) was an English explorer, sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer, and politician.

Rex Barnes

A 1911 political cartoon on Canada's bicultural identity showing a flag combining symbols of Britain, France and Canada; titled "The next favor. 'A flag to suit the minority.'"

Rex Barnes (born June 4, 1959) is a Canadian politician.

Blanche Bruce

Bruce's house at 909 M Street NW in Washington, D.C. was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1975
Blanche Kelso Bruce (2001)

Blanche Kelso Bruce (March 1, 1841 – March 17, 1898) was born into slavery in Prince Edward County, Virginia, and went on to become a politician who represented Mississippi as a Republican in the United States Senate from 1875 to 1881.