Pollination

pollinatedpollinatecross-pollinationpollinatingcross pollinationpollinatespollinatorspollinatorcross-pollinatedcross-pollinate
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.wikipedia
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Anthecology

pollination biologyplant fertilizationpollination ecology
The study of pollination by insects is known as anthecology.
Anthecology, or pollination biology, is the study of pollination as well as the relationships between flowers and their pollinators.

Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
In seed plants, after pollination, a pollen grain germinates, and a pollen tube grows and penetrates the ovule through a tiny pore called a micropyle.

Nectar

extrafloral nectariesnectariesnectary
This allows the plant to spend energy directly on pollen rather than on attracting pollinators with flowers and nectar.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

Anemophily

wind-pollinatedanemophilouswind pollination
Some 98% of abiotic pollination is anemophily, pollination by wind.
Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.

Entomophily

entomophilousinsect-pollinatedentomogamy
Entomophily, pollination by insects, often occurs on plants that have developed colored petals and a strong scent to attract insects such as, bees, wasps and occasionally ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), and flies (Diptera).
Entomophily or insect pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.

Hydrophily

hydrophilouswaterepihydrophilous
Pollination by water, hydrophily, uses water to transport pollen, sometimes as whole anthers; these can travel across the surface of the water to carry dry pollen from one flower to another.
Hydrophily is a fairly uncommon form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by the flow of waters, particularly in rivers and streams.

Flower

flowersfloralflowering
Abiotic pollination uses nonliving methods such as wind and water to move pollen from one flower to another.
Corolla: the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are typically thin, soft and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.

Lepidoptera

lepidopteranbutterflies and mothsbutterflies
Entomophily, pollination by insects, often occurs on plants that have developed colored petals and a strong scent to attract insects such as, bees, wasps and occasionally ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), and flies (Diptera).
Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain; conversely, their larvae are considered very problematic to vegetation in agriculture, as their main source of food is often live plant matter.

Zoophily

zoophiliczoophilousby animals
In zoophily, pollination is performed by vertebrates such as birds and bats, particularly, hummingbirds, sunbirds, spiderhunters, honeyeaters, and fruit bats.
Zoophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is transferred by animals, usually vertebrates but may include invertebrates, particularly by hummingbirds and other birds, and bats, but also by monkeys, marsupials, lemurs, bears, rabbits, deer, rodents, lizards, and other animals.

Pollen

exinepollen grainmicrosporogenesis
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
The transfer of pollen grains to the female reproductive structure (pistil in angiosperms) is called pollination. This transfer can be mediated by the wind, in which case the plant is described as anemophilous (literally wind-loving).

Ornithophily

ornithophilouspollinatedbird pollination
Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds.
Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds.

Pollen tube

pollen tubespollen-tubepollen tube growth and guidance
In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary.
The pollen is delivered by the opening of anthers for subsequent pollination (transfer of pollen grains to the pistil, the female reproductive organ).

Insect

insectsbugbugs
Entomophily, pollination by insects, often occurs on plants that have developed colored petals and a strong scent to attract insects such as, bees, wasps and occasionally ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), and flies (Diptera). The majority of these pollinators are insects, but about 1,500 species of birds and mammals visit flowers and may transfer pollen between them.
Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least partly dependent; without them, the terrestrial portion of the biosphere would be devastated.

Pollination syndrome

pollinated by batspollination syndromescharacteristic adaptations
Chiropterophily or bat pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by bats.
Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.

Pollinator

pollinatorspollinatingpollinated
The pollination process as an interaction between flower and pollen vector was first addressed in the 18th century by Christian Konrad Sprengel.
A pollinator is different from a pollenizer, a plant that is a source of pollen for the pollination process.

Megabat

fruit batfruit batsmegabats
In zoophily, pollination is performed by vertebrates such as birds and bats, particularly, hummingbirds, sunbirds, spiderhunters, honeyeaters, and fruit bats.
Nectarivores actually pollinate visited plants.

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant breeding work.
In the early 20th century, plant breeders realized that Mendel's findings on the non-random nature of inheritance could be applied to seedling populations produced through deliberate pollinations to predict the frequencies of different types.

Hummingbird

hummingbirdshumming birdhumming birds
In zoophily, pollination is performed by vertebrates such as birds and bats, particularly, hummingbirds, sunbirds, spiderhunters, honeyeaters, and fruit bats.
Within the same geographic region, hummingbird clades co-evolved with nectar-bearing plant clades, affecting mechanisms of pollination.

Pollination trap

trapstrap pollinationtrap pollinators
Some flowers have specialized mechanisms to trap pollinators to increase effectiveness.
Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination.

Fly

Dipterafliestrue flies
Entomophily, pollination by insects, often occurs on plants that have developed colored petals and a strong scent to attract insects such as, bees, wasps and occasionally ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), and flies (Diptera).
They may have been responsible for the first plant pollination in the Triassic.

Fruit

fruitsfruitingseed pods
It is important in horticulture and agriculture, because fruiting is dependent on fertilization: the result of pollination.
The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers.

Butterfly

butterfliesbutterfly-likebutterfly wing scales
bumblebees (Bombus spp.), and butterflies (e.g., Thymelicus flavus) have been observed to engage in flower constancy, which means they are more likely to transfer pollen to other conspecific plants.
Some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic crops or trees; other species are agents of pollination of some plants.

Bee

beessolitary beesolitary bees
Bees provide a good example of the mutualism that exists between hymenopterans and angiosperms.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the western honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

Pollination management

pollinationmanaged pollinationartificial pollination
Pollination management is a branch of agriculture that seeks to protect and enhance present pollinators and often involves the culture and addition of pollinators in monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit orchards.
Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.

Gnetophyta

gnetophyteGnetalesGnetophytes
Cycads and Ginkgo have motile sperm that swim directly to the egg inside the ovule, whereas conifers and gnetophytes have sperm that are unable to swim but are conveyed to the egg along a pollen tube.
The two common characteristics most commonly used are the presence of enveloping bracts around both the ovules and microsporangia as well as a micropylar projection of the outer membrane of the ovule that produces a pollination droplet, though these are highly specific compared to the similarities between most other plant divisions.