Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution controlpollutingpollutantsindustrial pollutionpolluteenvironmental contaminationenvironmental pollutantspolluters
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.wikipedia
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Light pollution

light-pollutedglarelight
Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution.
Light pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple; some of them may not be known yet.

Plastic pollution

plastic wasteplasticwaste
Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution.
Together, these two factors have led to a high prominence of plastic pollution in the environment.

Water quality

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London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward.
Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not.

Point source pollution

point sourcepoint sourcespoint
Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution.

Brownfield land

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The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.
Brownfield land is a term used in urban planning to describe any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not or, in North America, more specifically to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.

Litter

litteringdumpinganti-littering
Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution.
Hazardous materials encapsulated within tires and other items of illegally dumped rubbish can leach into water sources, contaminate the soil and pollute the air.

Contamination

contaminantcontaminantscontaminated
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In environmental chemistry the term is in some cases virtually equivalent to pollution, where the main interest is the harm done on a large scale to humans or to organisms or environments that are important to humans.

Environmentalism

environmentalenvironmentalistenvironmental awareness
Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.
Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity.

Human impact on the environment

anthropogenichuman activityhuman impacts
Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.
Some human activities that cause damage (either directly or indirectly) to the environment on a global scale include human reproduction, overconsumption, overexploitation, pollution, and deforestation, to name but a few.

Environmental movement

environmental activistenvironmentalenvironmental activism
Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.
The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution.

Lake Karachay

Lake Karachay – named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth – served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
According to a report by the Washington, D.C.-based Worldwatch Institute on nuclear waste, Karachay is the most polluted (open-air) place on Earth from a radiological point of view.

Groundwater pollution

groundwater contaminationgroundwatercontaminated groundwater
Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides; also including human feces from open defecation – still a major problem in many developing countries); groundwater pollution from waste disposal and leaching into the ground, including from pit latrines and septic tanks; eutrophication and littering.
This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution.

Externality

externalitiesnegative externalitiesnegative externality
A manufacturing activity that causes air pollution is an example of a negative externality in production.
If external costs exist, such as pollution, the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the producer were required to pay all associated environmental costs.

Emissions trading

cap and tradecap-and-tradeemissions trading scheme
Some examples include tariffs, a carbon tax and cap and trade systems.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.

Debris

wreckagecoarsedebris flow
A much more recently discovered problem is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a huge concentration of plastics, chemical sludge and other debris which has been collected into a large area of the Pacific Ocean by the North Pacific Gyre.
Marine debris applies to floating garbage such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphernalia from professional and recreational boaters.

Waste

garbagerefuserubbish
Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides; also including human feces from open defecation – still a major problem in many developing countries); groundwater pollution from waste disposal and leaching into the ground, including from pit latrines and septic tanks; eutrophication and littering. The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply.
The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources.

Environmental economics

environmental economistenvironmentalenvironmental economists
It is possible to use environmental economics to determine which level of pollution is deemed the social optimum.
Or a firm emitting pollution will typically not take into account the costs that its pollution imposes on others.

Environmental issues in Russia

ecologyenvironmental issuesenvironmental protection
China, United States, Russia, India Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions.
Many of the issues have been attributed to policies during the Soviet Union, a time when officials felt that pollution control was an unnecessary hindrance to economic development and industrialization.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismIndustrial Age
The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply.
The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution.

Environmental impact of meat production

animal agriculturedetrimental environmental effects of meat productionenvironmental
Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry.
Some of the environmental effects that have been associated with meat production are pollution through fossil fuel usage, animal methane, effluent waste, and water and land consumption.

Chemical plant

chemicalplantchemical factory
Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry.
Other kinds of plants, such as polymer, pharmaceutical, food, and some beverage production facilities, power plants, oil refineries or other refineries, natural gas processing and biochemical plants, water and wastewater treatment, and pollution control equipment use many technologies that have similarities to chemical plant technology such as fluid systems and chemical reactor systems.

Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast

OzyorskOzerskChelyabinsk-40
Chelyabinsk, Russia, is considered the "Most polluted place on the planet".
Ozyorsk and the surrounding countryside have been heavily contaminated by industrial pollution from the Mayak plutonium plant since the late 1940s.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides; also including human feces from open defecation – still a major problem in many developing countries); groundwater pollution from waste disposal and leaching into the ground, including from pit latrines and septic tanks; eutrophication and littering.
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.

Clean Air Act (United States)

Clean Air ActClean Air Act of 1970U.S. Clean Air Act
Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act.
The federal law recognizes that states should lead in carrying out the Clean Air Act, because pollution control problems often require special understanding of local industries, geography, housing patterns, etc. However, states are not allowed to have weaker pollution controls than the national minimum criteria set by EPA.

Market failure

market failuresmarket imperfectionmarket imperfections
Therefore, the free market outcome could be considered a market failure because it “does not maximize efficiency”.
Perhaps the best example of the inefficiency associated with common/public goods and externalities is the environmental harm caused by pollution and overexploitation of natural resources.