Polycystic kidney disease

polycystic kidneypolycystic kidneysAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseasepolycystic kidney diseasesadult polycystic diseasecongenital polycystic kidney diseasekidney cystskidney diseasePKDPolycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.wikipedia
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Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

ARPKDautosomal recessive polycystic kidneyInfantile polycystic kidney disease
PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the recessive form of polycystic kidney disease.

Genetic disorder

genetic diseasegenetic disordersgenetic diseases
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Studies show that 10% of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients being treated with dialysis in Europe and the U.S. were initially diagnosed and treated for ADPKD.
Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

subarachnoid haemorrhagesubarachnoidsubarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic
This genetic defect can also cause aortic root aneurysms, and aneurysms in the circle of Willis cerebral arteries, which if they rupture, can cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a hereditary kidney condition, is known to be associated with cerebral aneurysms in 8 percent of cases, but most such aneurysms are small and therefore unlikely to rupture.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

angiotensin II receptor antagonistangiotensin receptor blockersangiotensin receptor blocker
Hypertension is treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
ARB inhibitors, although have protective effects against developing kidney diseases for patients with diabetes and previously hypertension without administration of ARBs, may worsen kidney functions such as causing further reduction of glomerular filtration rate associated with rise of serum creatinine in patients suffering practically clinical or already clinically present proteinuria, renal artery stenosis, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, heart failure, polycystic kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, interstitial fibrosis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, or any conditions such as ARBs-treated but still clinically hypertension that lead to abnormal narrowing of blood vessels to the kidney that interrupts oxygen and nutrients supply to the organ.

Hematuria

blood in the urinehaematuriabloody urine
Signs and symptoms include high blood pressure, headaches, abdominal pain, blood in the urine, and excessive urination.
Other possible causes include acute glomerulonephritis, staghorn calculus, polycystic kidneys, benign prostatic hyperplasia, solitary renal cyst, sickle cell disease, and hydronephrosis.

Cilium

ciliaciliatedciliary
Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease cyst formation are tied to abnormal cilia-mediated signaling.
Recent findings regarding its physiological roles in chemical sensation, signal transduction, and control of cell growth, have led scientists to acknowledge its importance in cell function, with the discovery of its role in diseases not previously recognized to involve the dysgenesis and dysfunction of cilia, such as polycystic kidney disease, congenital heart disease, and an emerging group of genetic ciliopathies.

Kidney transplantation

kidney transplantrenal transplantationrenal transplant
That will either be some form of dialysis, which can be done at least two different ways at varying frequencies and durations (whether it is done at home or in the clinic depends on the method used and the patient's stability and training) and eventually, if they are eligible because of the nature and severity of their condition and if a suitable match can be found, unilateral or bilateral kidney transplantation.
It was not until June 17, 1950, when a successful transplant was performed on Ruth Tucker, a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, by Dr. Richard Lawler at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
If and when the disease progresses enough in a given case, the nephrologist or other practitioner and the patient will have to decide what form of renal replacement therapy will be used to treat end-stage kidney disease (kidney failure, typically stage 4 or 5 of chronic kidney disease).
Causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes, high blood pressure, nephrotic syndrome, and polycystic kidney disease.

Nephron

renal tubulenephronsrenal tubules
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.
Glomerular diseases include diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy; renal tubular diseases include acute tubular necrosis and polycystic kidney disease.

Nephrology

nephrologistrenal medicinekidney disease
If and when the disease progresses enough in a given case, the nephrologist or other practitioner and the patient will have to decide what form of renal replacement therapy will be used to treat end-stage kidney disease (kidney failure, typically stage 4 or 5 of chronic kidney disease). Management from the time of the suspected or definitive diagnosis is by a board-certified nephrologist.
Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides (e.g. ANCA vasculitis) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus), as well as congenital or genetic conditions such as polycystic kidney disease.

Cyst

cystscysticencyst
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidneyADPKDpolycystic kidney disease
PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
The abnormal gene exists in all cells in the body; as a result, cysts may occur in the liver, seminal vesicles, and pancreas.

Seminal vesicle

seminal vesiclesvesicula seminalisvesicular gland
The abnormal gene exists in all cells in the body; as a result, cysts may occur in the liver, seminal vesicles, and pancreas.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic development
The abnormal gene exists in all cells in the body; as a result, cysts may occur in the liver, seminal vesicles, and pancreas.

Aneurysm

aneurysmsaneurismruptured aneurysm
This genetic defect can also cause aortic root aneurysms, and aneurysms in the circle of Willis cerebral arteries, which if they rupture, can cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Circle of Willis

cerebral arterial circlearterial circlebrain arteries
This genetic defect can also cause aortic root aneurysms, and aneurysms in the circle of Willis cerebral arteries, which if they rupture, can cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Cerebral arteries

cerebral arteryarteriescerebral
This genetic defect can also cause aortic root aneurysms, and aneurysms in the circle of Willis cerebral arteries, which if they rupture, can cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographymedical ultrasonography
Diagnosis may be suspected from one, some, or all of the following: new onset flank pain or red urine; a positive family history; palpation of enlarged kidneys on physical exam; an incidental finding on abdominal sonogram; or an incidental finding of abnormal kidney function on routine lab work (BUN, serum creatinine, or eGFR).

Blood urea nitrogen

BUNblood ureablood urea concentration
Diagnosis may be suspected from one, some, or all of the following: new onset flank pain or red urine; a positive family history; palpation of enlarged kidneys on physical exam; an incidental finding on abdominal sonogram; or an incidental finding of abnormal kidney function on routine lab work (BUN, serum creatinine, or eGFR).

Creatinine

serum creatininenormal kidney functioncreatinin
Diagnosis may be suspected from one, some, or all of the following: new onset flank pain or red urine; a positive family history; palpation of enlarged kidneys on physical exam; an incidental finding on abdominal sonogram; or an incidental finding of abnormal kidney function on routine lab work (BUN, serum creatinine, or eGFR).

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
Definitive diagnosis is made by abdominal CT exam.

Renin–angiotensin system

renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systemrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemrenin angiotensin system
Complications include hypertension due to the activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), frequent cyst infections, urinary bleeding, and declining renal function.