Polydactyly

polydactylsix-fingeredpolydactylismextra toepolydactylicExtra finger or toeextra fingershexadactylyRudimentary supernumerary digitsix fingers
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.wikipedia
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Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.

Ellis–van Creveld syndrome

Ellis-van Creveld syndromeChondroectodermal dysplasia
The syndromes which occur with ulnar polydactyly are: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome, Down syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Supernumerary body part

supernumeraryadditionalextra
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.
In Hungarian mythology, having six fingers on a hand (polydactyly) is held to be the sign of innate supernatural power (see táltos).

Meckel syndrome

Meckel-Gruber syndromeMeckel–Gruber syndromeDysencephalia splachnocystica or Meckel–Gruber
The syndromes which occur with ulnar polydactyly are: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome, Down syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome
Meckel syndrome is a rare, lethal, ciliopathic, genetic disorder, characterized by renal cystic dysplasia, central nervous system malformations (occipital encephalocele), polydactyly (post axial), hepatic developmental defects, and pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios.

Bardet–Biedl syndrome

Bardet-Biedl syndromeBardet Biedl syndromeBardet-Biedl
The syndromes which occur with ulnar polydactyly are: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome, Down syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome
It is characterized principally by obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and kidney failure in some cases.

Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency
The syndromes which occur with ulnar polydactyly are: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome, Down syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome

Greig cephalopolysyndactylyGCPSGreig's syndrome
The syndromes which occur with ulnar polydactyly are: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome, Down syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome
People with this condition typically have one or more extra fingers or toes (polydactyly) or an abnormally wide thumb or big toe (hallux).

Thumb

opposable thumbopposable thumbsopposable
The extra digit is most common on the ulnar (little finger) side of the hand, less common on the radial (thumb) side, and very rarely within the middle three digits.
Other formations of the thumb include a triphalangeal thumb and polydactyly.

Synpolydactyly

Interactions of Hoxd13 and GLI3 induce synpolydactyly, a combination of extra and consolidated digits.
Synpolydactyly is a joint presentation of syndactyly (fusion of digits) and polydactyly (production of supernumerary digits).

Pallister–Hall syndrome

Pallister-Hall syndromeHall-Pallister syndromeHypothalamic hamartoblastoma syndrome
Pallister–Hall syndrome,
Most people with this condition have extra fingers and/or toes (polydactyly), and the skin between some fingers or toes may be fused (cutaneous syndactyly).

Oligodactyly

Hypodactyliamissing fingers or toesoligodactylous
Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly (fewer fingers or toes).
Oligodactyly is therefore the opposite of polydactyly.

GLI3

GliGli 3 GLI-Kruppel Family Member GLI3
Gli3 mutant mice have many abnormalities including CNS and lung defects and limb polydactyly.

Wassel classification

The Wassel classification is the most widely used classification of radial polydactyly, based upon the most proximal level of skeletal duplication.
The Wassel classification is used to categorise radial polydactyly, based upon the most proximal level of skeletal duplication.

McKusick–Kaufman syndrome

McKusick-Kaufman syndrome
The syndromes which occur with ulnar polydactyly are: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome, Down syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Ectrodactyly

Cleft handclaw handclawhand
Also, central polydactyly can be associated with syndactyly and cleft hand.
Polydactyly, syndactyly and cleft hand can occur within the same hand, therefore some investigators suggest that these entities occur from the same mechanism.

Acrocallosal syndrome

Acrocallosal syndrome, Schinzel type
Other syndromes including polydactyly include acrocallosal syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome, Biemond syndrome, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasias-cleft lip/palate syndrome, mirror hand deformity, Mohr syndrome, oral-facial-digital syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, short rib polydactyly, and VATER association.
Acrocallosal syndrome (also known as ACLS) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by corpus callosum agenesis, polydactyly, multiple dysmorphic features, motor and intellectual disabilities, and other symptoms.

Triphalangeal thumb

looks like a finger
It can also occur with a triphalangeal thumb.
There is often a combination with radial polydactyly.

Antonio Alfonseca

Alfonseca
He is known for having an extra digit on each hand and foot.

Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802)

Robert ChambersRobertChambers
Both Robert and William were born with six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot.

Hrithik Roshan

Hritik RoshanHrithik
Roshan felt isolated as a child; he was born with an extra thumb fused to the one on his right hand, which led some of his peers to avoid him.

Hound Dog Taylor

Theodore Roosevelt "Hound Dog" TaylorHound Dog Taylor & The House RockersHound Dog Taylor and the HouseRockers
He was famous among guitar players for having six fingers on both hands, a condition called polydactyly.

Garfield Sobers

Gary SobersGarry SobersSobers
At birth he had two extra fingers, one on each hand, which he removed himself during childhood, "with the aid of catgut and a sharp knife."

Zone of polarizing activity

zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)polarityZPA
Normally Shh is expressed in an organiser region, called the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) on the posterior limb side.
Studies in mice show that Gli3 knockouts have polydactyly digits.

Biemond syndrome

Other syndromes including polydactyly include acrocallosal syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome, Biemond syndrome, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasias-cleft lip/palate syndrome, mirror hand deformity, Mohr syndrome, oral-facial-digital syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, short rib polydactyly, and VATER association.
It is characterized principally by obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and kidney failure in some cases.

Volcatius Sedigitus

Volcacius Sedigitus
This rare state, known as polydactyly, is caused by a dominant gene.