Polymerization

polymerisationpolymerizepolymerizedpolymerizesphotopolymerizationpolymerizingpolymer synthesispolymerisepolymerisesco-polymerized
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.wikipedia
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Monomer

monomersmonomeric-mer
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that can be reacted together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain or three-dimensional network in a process called polymerization.

Copolymer

copolymersblock copolymerblock copolymers
In general, polymers such as PVC are referred to as "homopolymers," as they consist of repeated long chains or structures of the same monomer unit, whereas polymers that consist of more than one monomer unit are referred to as copolymers (or co-polymers).
The polymerization of monomers into copolymers is called copolymerization.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Dissociation plays an important role in triggering chain reactions, such as hydrogen–oxygen or polymerization reactions.

Polyvinyl chloride

PVCvinylpolyvinylchloride
As alkenes can polymerize in somewhat straightforward radical reactions, they form useful compounds such as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which are produced in high tonnages each year due to their usefulness in manufacturing processes of commercial products, such as piping, insulation and packaging.
Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), as shown.

Steric effects

steric hindrancestericsterically
In chemical compounds, polymerization can occur via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to the functional groups present in the reactants and their inherent steric effects.
T_c is the temperature where the rate of polymerization and depolymerization are equal.

Polymer chemistry

polymer chemistMacromolecular ChemistryHistory of polymer chemistry
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polymers are high molecular mass compounds formed by polymerization of monomers.

Alkene

olefinalkenesolefins
In more straightforward polymerizations, alkenes form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, reactions involving substitution at a carbonyl group require more complex synthesis due to the way in which reactants polymerize.
Polymerization of alkenes is a reaction that yields polymers of high industrial value at great economy, such as the plastics polyethylene and polypropylene.

Radical (chemistry)

free radicalradicalfree radicals
In chain-growth (or chain) polymerization, the only chain-extension reaction step is the addition of a monomer to a growing chain with an active center such as a free radical or ion.
Radicals are important in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes.

Radical polymerization

free-radical polymerizationfree radical polymerizationradical polymerisation
In the radical polymerization of ethylene, its π bond is broken, and the two electrons rearrange to create a new propagating center like the one that attacked it.
Initiation is the first step of the polymerization process.

Living polymerization

livinganionic living free radical polymerizationcontrolled (or living) radical polymerization
A special case of chain-growth polymerization leads to living polymerization.
The result is that the polymer chains grow at a more constant rate than seen in traditional chain polymerization and their lengths remain very similar (i.e. they have a very low polydispersity index).

Ethylene

etheneC 2 H 4 ethylene gas
In the radical polymerization of ethylene, its π bond is broken, and the two electrons rearrange to create a new propagating center like the one that attacked it.
Major industrial reactions of ethylene include in order of scale: 1) polymerization, 2) oxidation, 3) halogenation and hydrohalogenation, 4) alkylation, 5) hydration, 6) oligomerization, and 7) hydroformylation.

Polyurethane

urethanepolyurethanesurethanes
However, there are exceptions; for example polyurethanes are step-growth polymers formed from isocyanate and alcohol bifunctional monomers) without loss of water or other small molecule, and are classified as addition polymers rather than condensation polymers.
The polymerization reaction makes a polymer containing the urethane linkage, −RNHCOOR′− and is catalyzed by tertiary amines, such as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (also called DABCO), and metallic compounds, such as dibutyltin dilaurate or bismuth octanoate.

Anionic addition polymerization

anionic polymerizationanionicLiving anionic polymerization
Other forms of chain growth polymerization include cationic addition polymerization and anionic addition polymerization.
Anionic addition polymerization is a form of chain-growth polymerization or addition polymerization that involves the polymerization of monomers initiated with anions.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers.

Chain termination

terminationtermination reactionterminate
Taking the polymerization of ethylene as an example, the free radical mechanism can be divided into three stages: chain initiation, chain propagation, and chain termination.
Chain termination is any chemical reaction that ceases the formation of reactive intermediates in a chain propagation step in the course of a polymerization, effectively bringing it to a halt.

Solution polymerization

solutionin solution
These include emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization, and precipitation polymerization.
Solution polymerization is a method of industrial polymerization.

Ziegler–Natta catalyst

Ziegler–NattaZiegler-Natta catalysisZiegler–Natta catalysis
A newer method of polymerization similar to free radical, but allowing more control involves the Ziegler–Natta catalyst, especially with respect to polymer branching.
Also, in the 1960s, BASF developed a gas-phase, mechanically-stirred polymerization process for making polypropylene.

Plasma polymerization

Plasma polymerizedplasma polymer films
Plasma polymerization (or glow discharge polymerization) uses plasma sources to generate a gas discharge that provides energy to activate or fragment gaseous or liquid monomer, often containing a vinyl group, in order to initiate polymerization.

Suspension polymerization

suspension
These include emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization, and precipitation polymerization.
Suspension polymerization is a heterogeneous radical polymerization process that uses mechanical agitation to mix a monomer or mixture of monomers in a liquid phase, such as water, while the monomers polymerize, forming spheres of polymer.

Polymer physics

Polymer physicistmolecular bonds in a polymerphysics
Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.

Branching (polymer chemistry)

branchingbranchedBranched polymer
A newer method of polymerization similar to free radical, but allowing more control involves the Ziegler–Natta catalyst, especially with respect to polymer branching.
Branching also occurs naturally during enzymatically-catalyzed polymerization of glucose to form polysaccharides such as glycogen (animals), and amylopectin, a form of starch (plants).

Precipitation polymerization

precipitation
These include emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization, and precipitation polymerization.
In polymer science, precipitation polymerization is a heterogeneous polymerization process that begins initially as a homogeneous system in the continuous phase, where the monomer and initiator are completely soluble, but upon initiation the formed polymer is insoluble and thus precipitates.

Ring-opening polymerization

polymerizationring opening polymerizationring opening polymerizations
Some cyclic monomers such as norbornene or cyclooctadiene can be polymerized to high molecular weight polymers by using metal catalysts.

3D printing

3D printeradditive manufacturing3D printers
Several forms of 3D printing—including layer-by-layer stereolithography and
Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography to produce a solid part from a liquid.

Chain-growth polymerization

addition polymerizationchain initiationchain polymerization
Taking the polymerization of ethylene as an example, the free radical mechanism can be divided into three stages: chain initiation, chain propagation, and chain termination.