Polysaccharide

polysaccharidesheteropolysaccharidecomplex carbohydratescomplex sugarssugarcarbohydrate structureschains of sugar moleculesgumsheteropolysaccharideslong chains
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.wikipedia
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Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria.

Cellulose

cellulolyticcellulosiccellulose ester
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D -glucose units.

Amylose

Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin.
Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α- D -glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.

Amylopectin

Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin.
Amylopectin is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.

Monosaccharide

monosaccharidessimple sugarsimple sugars
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).

Oligosaccharide

oligosaccharidesoligo-complex carbohydrates
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Others, such as maltodextrins or cellodextrins, result from the microbial breakdown of larger polysaccharides such as starch or cellulose.

Chitin

chitinouschitinous polymer matrixchitohexaose
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide—cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers.

Biopolymer

biopolymersbio-polymerbiological polymers
Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers.
There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified according to the monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotides (RNA and DNA), which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric carbohydrate structures.

Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
Cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other organisms, and is said to be the most abundant organic molecule on Earth.
The cell walls of archaea have various compositions, and may be formed of glycoprotein S-layers, pseudopeptidoglycan, or polysaccharides.

Callose

Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Callose is a plant polysaccharide.

Fungus

Fungifungalnecrotrophic
It is found in arthropod exoskeletons and in the cell walls of some fungi.
Adaptations such as these are complemented by hydrolytic enzymes secreted into the environment to digest large organic molecules—such as polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids—into smaller molecules that may then be absorbed as nutrients.

Dietary fiber

fiberdietary fibresoluble fiber
Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among other benefits.
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.

Galactomannan

Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups (more specifically, a (1-4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranose backbone with branchpoints from their 6-positions linked to alpha-D-galactose, (i.e. 1-6-linked alpha-D-galactopyranose).

Fucoidan

Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide (MW: average 20,000) found mainly in various species of brown algae and brown seaweed such as mozuku, kombu, bladderwrack, wakame, and hijiki (variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea cucumber).

Mannan

mannansMohammad Abdul Mannan
Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Mannan may refer to a plant polysaccharide that is a linear polymer of the sugar mannose.

Laminarin

Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
The molecule laminarin (also known as laminaran) is a storage glucan (a polysaccharide of glucose) found in brown algae.

Xylan

heteroxylan
Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Xylans are polysaccharides made up of β-1,4-linked xylose (a pentose sugar) residues with side branches of α-arabinofuranose and α-glucuronic acids and contribute to cross-linking of cellulose microfibrils and lignin through ferulic acid residues.

Hydrolysis

hydrolyzedhydrolysehydrolyze
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Two, three, several or many monosaccharides thus linked form disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, or polysaccharides, respectively.

Chrysolaminarin

Polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Chrysolaminarin is a storage polysaccharide typically found in photosynthetic heterokonts.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
Starches are insoluble in water.
In addition, many substances in living organisms, such as proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, are dissolved in water.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde.
For this reason, D-glucose is also a highly preferred building block in natural polysaccharides (glycans).

Macromolecule

macromoleculesmacromolecularmacromolecular chemistry
Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks.
Carbohydrate macromolecules (polysaccharides) are formed from polymers of monosaccharides.

Chitosan

Celox
Chemically, chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin).
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D -glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl- D -glucosamine (acetylated unit).

Pectin

pectinspecticRhamnogalacturonan
Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α--galactosyl uronic acid residues.
Pectin (from, "congealed, curdled" ) is a structural acidic heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.