View of Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius
Settlement phases of Pompeii
red: 1st (Samnite) town
blue: 1st expansion, 4th c. BC
green: 2nd expansion
yellow: Roman expansion, from 89 BC
Greek Doric Temple (6th c BC) in Triangular Forum
Etruscan Temple of Apollo
City walls (6th c BC) south of the Nocera gate
The Temple of Jupiter
Annotated map of Pompeii
Large Theatre
Gladiator barracks
Fresco depicting the fight in the amphitheatre between Pompeians and Nucerians
Pompeii and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.
Plan of Fontana's aqueduct through Pompeii
Periods/areas of excavations
"Garden of the Fugitives". Plaster casts of victims still in situ; many casts are in the Archaeological Museum of Naples.
Fiorelli's plan of regiones
Via dell'Abbondanza, the main street in Pompeii
The buildings on the left show signs of decay due to the infestation of various plants, while the debris accumulating on the footpath indicates erosion of the infrastructure. The footpaths and road have also been worn down by pedestrian activity since excavation.
Portico in front of the entrance of the Macellum
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii
Location of public baths and sports buildings
From the house of Mars and Venus
The Forum
Karl Brullov, The Last Day of Pompeii (1830–1833)
Entrance to the Basilica in the Forum
The Basilica
View of the Forum from the Basilica
The Temple of Apollo
The House of the Faun
Fresco from the Villa dei Misteri
Street in Pompeii

Ancient city located in what is now the comune of Pompei near Naples in the Campania region of Italy.

- Pompeii

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Mount Vesuvius

Somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.

A view of the crater wall of Vesuvius, with the city of Torre del Greco in the background
Famous view of Vesuvius and the historic Pine of Naples overlooking the city of Naples in 19th century, by Giorgio Sommer
Procession of Saint Januarius during an eruption of Vesuvius in 1822
Vesuvius erupting. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
Fresco of Bacchus and Agathodaemon with Mount Vesuvius, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash, pumice and cinders. Modern coast lines are shown.
Pompeii, with Vesuvius towering above
Eruption of 16 December 1631. Joachim von Sandrart and Matthias Merian in Danckerts Historis, 1642.
An eruption of Vesuvius seen from Portici, by Joseph Wright (ca. 1774–6)
The March 1944 eruption of Vesuvius, by Jack Reinhardt, B-24 tailgunner in the USAAF during World War II
Ash is swept off the wings of an American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber of the 340th Bombardment Group on 23 March 1944 after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
The area around the volcano is now densely populated.
The crater of Vesuvius in 2012

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements.


Art that is written, painted or drawn on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view.

An abandoned roof felt factory with graffiti in Santalahti, Tampere, Finland
Ancient graffito in the Kom Ombo Temple, Egypt
Ancient Pompeii graffito caricature of a politician
Figure graffito, similar to a relief, at the Castellania, in Valletta
A graffiti piece found in Tel Aviv by the artist DeDe
Knitted graffiti in Seattle, Washington
Spiderweb Yarnbomb Installation by Stephen Duneier both hides and highlights previous graffiti.
A tag in Dallas, reading "Spore"
Black bloc members spray graffiti on a wall during an Iraq War Protest in Washington, D.C.
Police car graffitied with anarchist symbols
"Fuck 12", an Anti-police message insulting the police on a wall in Minneapolis
One World !
Gang symbol markings on public property, Millwood, Washington
A bronze work by Jonesy on a wall in Brick Lane (London). Diameter about 8 cm.
Graffiti removal in Berlin
Graffiti Tunnel, University of Sydney at Camperdown (2009)
Former Christchurch stock yards
An elevator position indicator with scratch graffiti
Graffiti depicting people in a boat in the Museum of ancient graffiti, France
Ironic wall inscription commenting on boring graffiti
Satirical Alexamenos graffito, possibly the earliest known representation of Jesus
Graffiti, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
Crusader graffiti in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Viking mercenary graffiti at the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey
Graffiti on the Mirror Wall, Sigiriya, Sri Lanka
Soldier with tropical fantasy graffiti (1943–1944)
Soviet Army graffiti in the ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin (1945)
Permanent engraving of Kilroy on the World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C.
New York City Subway trains were covered in graffiti (1973)
Graffiti in Chicago (1973)
Graffiti on a wall in Čakovec, Croatia
Graffiti of the character Bender on a wall in Budapest, Hungary
Graffiti in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Graffiti art in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Graffiti in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Graffiti on a park wall in Sydney, Australia
The first graffiti shop in Russia was opened in 1992 in Tver
Graffiti application at Eurofestival in Turku, Finland
Graffiti application in India using natural pigments (mostly charcoal, plant saps, and dirt)
Completed landscape scene, in Thrissur, Kerala, India
A graffiti artist at work in London
Drawing at Temple of Philae, Egypt depicting three men with rods, or staves.
Inscription in Pompeii lamenting a frustrated love, "Whoever loves, let him flourish, let him perish who knows not love, let him perish twice over whoever forbids love."
Post-apocalyptic despair
Mermaid in Sliema, Malta
Graffiti with orthodox cross at the Catholic Church in Ystad 2021.
Revolution. Sweden 2014.
Anti Iraqi war graffiti by street artist Sony Montana in Cancun, Mexico (2007)
Wall in Belgrade, Serbia, with the slogan "Vote for Filip Filipović", who was the communist candidate for the mayor of Belgrade (1920)
An interpretation of Liberty Leading the People on the separation barrier which runs through Bethlehem
WWII bunker near Anhalter Bahnhof (Berlin) with a graffiti inscription Wer Bunker baut, wirft Bomben (those who build bunkers, throw bombs)
Graffiti on the train line leading to Central Station in Amsterdam
"Let's JOKK" in Tartu refers to political scandal with the Estonian Reform Party (2012)
Stencil in Pieksämäki representing former president of Finland, Urho Kekkonen, well known in Finnish popular culture
Feminist graffiti in A Coruña, Spain that reads "Enough with rosaries in our ovaries"
East Timorese protest against Australian petroleum extraction
Graffiti of two communist leaders kissing, on the Berlin Wall
Ironic graffiti in Bethlehem
Berlin Wall: "Anyone who wants to keep the world as it is, does not want it to remain"
Ancient Pompeiian graffiti advertising by a pimp
Graffiti as advertising in Haikou, Hainan Province, China, which is an extremely common form of graffiti seen throughout the country
Graffiti as legal advertising on a grocer's shop window in Warsaw, Poland
Graffiti in Buenos Aires, showing the Obelisk
Graffiti on a wall in Budapest
Graffiti on the wall of pedestrian tunnel in Tikkurila, Vantaa, Finland
Street graffiti in Hong Kong
The Graffiti Piece "Tante" (by Chen Dongfan) on the surface wall of an old residential building in Hangzhou, Zhejiang
Multi-artist graffiti in Barcelona, Spain
Integration of graffiti into its environment, Zumaia 2016
Graffiti made by school children in Rijeka, Croatia
Historical graffito of Gavrilo Princip in Belgrade, Serbia
Graffiti on a garage near a school in Nizhny Novgorod
Rampant graffiti hampers visibility into and out of subway cars (1973)
Graffiti-lined tunnel in San Francisco
Graffiti in Los Angeles (2006)
Anti-governmental graffiti in Bolinas, California
Protest art in Memphis, Tennessee

The term graffiti originally referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, and such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii.


Wall painting from Stabiae, 1st century AD
Stabiae and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.
City gate of Stabiae
Map of excavations at Stabiae
Milestone found on the cathedral site, 121 AD
Plan of part of the town of Stabiae, (Villa San Marco top right)
Spring fresco from the Villa Arianna, Stabiae, one of the best-known and iconic Roman frescoes
Victim of eruption found in 2006 in Villa San Marco
Atrium, Villa San Marco
Vista from Triclinium, Villa San Marco
Plan of Villa San Marco
Entrance to Villa San Marco and atrium
Nymphaeum in the peristyle
Villa Arianna
Map of Villa Arianna and the Second Complex on the left
Portico, Second Complex
Plan of the Villa del Pastore
Labrum from Villa del Pastore
Shepherd from the Villa del Pastore
Plan of Villa del Fauno
Plan of Villa Medici
Plan of Villa del Filosofo
Plan of Villa Marchetti
Plan of Villa detto Carmiano in Masseria Buonodono
Plan of Villa casa dei Miri
The rock of Rovigliano
Column from temple of Diana
Naples Museum
Leda and the swan
Naples Museum
Ariadne on Naxos, triclinium
Nereid on sea-horse
Nereid on sea-panther
Naples Museum
Cupid seller
Roman cart
Unfinished stucco panels
Triumph of Dionynsus
Bacchus and Ceres, from the triclinium

Stabiae was an ancient city situated near the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia and approximately 4.5 km southwest of Pompeii.


Regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017.

Mount Echia, the place where the polis of Parthenope arose
The Columns of the Temple of Castor and Pollux incorporated into the facade of San Paolo Maggiore
A scene featuring the siren Parthenope, the mythological founder of Naples
The Gothic Battle of Mons Lactarius on Vesuvius, painted by Alexander Zick
The Castel Nuovo, a.k.a. Maschio Angioino, a seat of medieval kings of Naples, Aragon and Spain
French troops and artillery entering Naples in 1495, during the Italian War of 1494–98
Onofrio Palumbo's portrait of the 17th-century revolutionary leader Masaniello
Departure of Charles III of Spain from Naples, 1759
Naples depicted during the ephemeral Parthenopean Republic
Entrance of Garibaldi into Naples on 7 September 1860
Allied bombardment of Naples, 1943
Royal Palace of Naples
The Egg Castle
National Archaeological Museum
National Museum of Capodimonte
Naples Cathedral
Church of Gesù Nuovo
Hanging gardens of the Certosa di San Martino
Interior of the Church of Girolamini
Inside Galleria Umberto I
Underground Naples
Villa Comunale
Aselmeyer Castle, built by Lamont Young in the Neo-Gothic style
One of the city's various examples of Liberty Napoletano
The Gulf of Naples
The Palazzo Donn'Anna and Bagno Donn'Anna beach in Posillipo
Urban density in central Naples
Main building of the University of Naples Federico II
Palazzo San Giacomo, the city hall
Palazzo delle Poste in Naples, Gino Franzi, 1936. The masterpiece of modernism, marble and diorite.
Directional center of Naples
The port of Naples
Naples International Airport
The square of Piazza Garibaldi at Napoli Centrale under renovation
Dante Station of the Naples Metro
A Romantic painting by Salvatore Fergola showing the 1839 inauguration of the Naples-Portici railway line
Neapolitan pizza. Pizza was invented in Naples.
Sfogliatelle, a popular Neapolitan pastry dish
An 1813 depiction of the Piedigrotta festival
The interior of the Teatro San Carlo
Tarantella in Napoli, a 1903 postcard
Neapolitan mandolin
Totò, a famous Neapolitan actor
The Stadio San Paolo

A wide range of culturally and historically significant sites are nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Oscan language

Extinct Indo-European language of southern Italy.

The Oscan language in the 5th century BCE
The linguistic landscape of Central Italy at the beginning of Roman expansion
Français : Alphabet osque accompagné de la prononciation et des lettres latines équivalentes.

Oscan graffiti on the walls of Pompeii indicate its persistence in at least one urban environment well into the 1st century of the common era.

Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD

Its eruption in 79 AD, which was one of the deadliest in European history.

The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum (c. undefined 1821) by John Martin
The Last Day of Pompeii. Painting by Karl Brullov, 1830–1833
Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash, pumice and cinders. Modern coast lines are shown; Pliny the Younger was at Misenum.
Inside the crater of Vesuvius
Pompeii, with Vesuvius towering in the background
The casts of some victims in the so-called "Garden of the Fugitives", Pompeii.
The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum

At the time, the region was a part of the Roman Empire, and several Roman cities were obliterated and buried underneath massive pyroclastic surges and ashfall deposits, the best known being Pompeii and Herculaneum.


Sanctuary of Pompei
The Roman ruins of Pompeii
A citrus store on a central road
The FS railway station

Pompei (Pumpeje, ) or Pompeii (, as in the name of the ancient city), is a city and commune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy, home of the ancient Roman ruins of Pompeii that are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Vulgar Latin

Non-literary Latin spoken from the Late Roman Republic onwards.

The Cantar de Mio Cid (Song of my Cid) is the earliest Spanish text

The confusion had already started in Pompeian graffiti, e.g. cadaver mortuus for cadaver mortuum ("dead body"), and hoc locum for hunc locum ("this place").


Ancient town, located in the modern-day comune of Ercolano, Campania, Italy.

The excavations of Ercolano
Herculaneum plan showing the ancient site below the modern (1908) town and the 1631 "lava" flow
Herculaneum and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.
Small Herculaneum Woman (Dresden)
Insulae numbers
Cupids playing with a lyre, Roman fresco from Herculaneum
A marble tablet from Herculaneum showing women playing knucklebones, depicting Phoebe, Leto, Niobe, Hilearia, and Agle, painted and signed by an artist named "Alexander of Athens", now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples)
A fresco depicting Theseus, from Herculaneum (Ercolano), Italy, 45–79 AD
"Boat houses" where skeletons were found
"Boat houses" with skeletons
The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum.
Herculaneum, Ercolano, and Vesuvius
House Number 22 is noted for this outstanding summer triclinium with a nymphaeum decorated with coloured mosaics.
Herculaneum, Neptune and Salacia, wall mosaic in House Number 22
Street paving stones in Herculaneum
Residential water pipe made of lead in Herculaneum
Wall paintings in the first style
Inlaid marble floor
Marcus Nonius Balbus, found in dwellings of Resina/Herculaneum.
Most likely a posthumous painted portrait of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt with red hair and her distinct facial features, wearing a royal diadem and pearl-studded hairpins, from Roman Herculaneum, mid-1st century AD<ref>{{citation|last1=Walker|first1=Susan|last2=Higgs|first2=Peter|editor-surname1=Walker|editor-given1=Susan|editor-surname2=Higgs|editor-given2=Peter|title=Cleopatra of Egypt: from History to Myth|location=Princeton, N.J.|chapter=Painting with a portrait of a woman in profile|publisher=Princeton University Press (British Museum Press)|year=2001|pages=314–315|isbn=9780691088358|postscript=.|chapter-url=https://archive.org/details/cleopatraofegypt0000unse/page/314}}</ref><ref>Fletcher, Joann (2008). Cleopatra the Great: The Woman Behind the Legend. New York: Harper. {{ISBN|978-0-06-058558-7}}, image plates and captions between pp. 246-247.</ref>
Bronze sculptures of runners from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum

Like the nearby city of Pompeii, Herculaneum is famous as one of the few ancient cities to be preserved more or less intact as the ash that blanketed the town also protected it against looting and the elements.


Administrative region of Italy; most of it is in the south-western portion of the Italian peninsula (with the Tyrrhenian Sea to its west), but it also includes the small Phlegraean Islands and the island of Capri.

Ancient Greek Temple of Hera, Paestum, built 550 BC
Ruins of Aeclanum, a Roman town in Irpinia district.
The Last Day of Pompeii – Karl Briullov
Early kings ruled from Castel Nuovo
Revolutionary Masaniello
Caserta Palace, inside
Ferdinand, Bourbon king.
Mount Vesuvius erupting in 1944
Bagnoli derelict steelworks (2016)
Fiat Panda III
Leather Shop
Fincantieri shipyard Castellammare di Stabia
Provinces in Campania.
An authentic Neapolitan pizza
Spaghetti alla puttanesca, a spicy pasta dish topped with a sauce made of tomatoes, olives, anchovies and capers
Dried red peppers and lemons hanging from a shop in Amalfi.
The grand gardens of the baroque Royal Palace of Caserta
Pulcinella with a guitar
The island of Capri, often seen as a cultural symbol of Campania.
Late Baroque art inside the Palace of Caserta.
The Stadio Diego Armando Maradona is the home ground of SSC Napoli of Serie A
Naples (Nunziatella Military School)
Amalfi Coast (Positano)
Island Capri
Island Ischia
Apple "Annurca" with distinctive ripening process
Crisommole (Vesuvian apricot)
Percoca (Variety of peach)
Huge lemon of Sorrento and Amalfi Coast
Sorrento orange
San Marzano tomato
Pasta of Gragnano
Mozzarella di bufala
Liqueur "Limoncello"
Driverless Metro Brescia
Meneghino Metro Milano

The region is home to 10 of the 58 UNESCO sites in Italy, including Pompeii and Herculaneum, the Royal Palace of Caserta, the Amalfi Coast and the Historic Centre of Naples.