Pope

PapacypapalBishop of RomeSovereign of Vatican CityThe PopeRoman PontiffRomeSupreme PontiffPope of RomeHoly Father
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (pontifex maximus), is the bishop of Rome, leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state representing the Holy See.wikipedia
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Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (pontifex maximus), is the bishop of Rome, leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state representing the Holy See.
The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope.

Holy See

VaticanRomethe Vatican
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (pontifex maximus), is the bishop of Rome, leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state representing the Holy See. While his office is called the papacy, the jurisdiction of the episcopal see is called the Holy See.
The Holy See (, ; Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law.

Apostolic Palace

VaticanVatican Palacethe Vatican
Since 1929, the pope has official residence in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican City, the Holy See's city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy.
The Apostolic Palace (Palatium Apostolicum; Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City.

Diocese of Rome

RomeBishop of RomeChurch of Rome
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (pontifex maximus), is the bishop of Rome, leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state representing the Holy See.
The Bishop of Rome or the Roman Bishop is the Pope, the Supreme Pontiff and leader of the Catholic Church.

Saint Peter

PeterSt. PeterSt Peter
The primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.
He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Romeor popeand also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch.

Vatican City

VaticanVatican City Statethe Vatican
Since 1929, the pope has official residence in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican City, the Holy See's city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. It is the Holy See that is the sovereign entity by international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence.
The Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state (a type of theocracy) ruled by the pope who is the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church.

Temporal power of the Holy See

temporal powerTemporal power (papal)temporal
It is the Holy See that is the sovereign entity by international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence.
The temporal power or jurisdiction of the Holy See designates the political and secular influence of the Holy See, that is jurisdiction of the pope of the Catholic Church, as distinguished from spiritual and pastoral activity.

Papal infallibility

ex cathedradogmatic definitioninfallible
By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been increasingly firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair (of Saint Peter)"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church that states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church."

Ecumenism

ecumenicalinterdenominationalecumenical movement
Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, and the defense of human rights.
For example, the Catholic Church is a single church, or communion, comprising 24 distinct self-governing particular churches in full communion with the bishop of Rome (the largest being the Latin Church, commonly called "Roman Catholic").

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs.
Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, who is appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death, and the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied, especially in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, and later became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century.
The Church of the East split after the Council of Ephesus (431) and Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon (451) over differences in Christology, while the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism (1054), especially over the authority of the bishop of Rome.

Keys of Heaven

keys of the kingdom of heavenkeyscrossed keys
The primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.
In ecclesiastical heraldry, papal coats of arms (those of individual popes) and those of the Holy See and Vatican City State include an image of crossed keys to represent the metaphorical keys of the office of Saint Peter, the keys of heaven, or the keys of the kingdom of Heaven, that, according to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised to Saint Peter, empowering him to take binding actions.

Chair of Saint Peter

Chair of St. PeterCathedra PetriChair of Peter
By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been increasingly firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair (of Saint Peter)"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
The Chair of Saint Peter (Cathedra Petri), also known as the Throne of Saint Peter, is a relic conserved in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the sovereign enclave of the Pope inside Rome, Italy.

Pope Clement I

Clement of RomeSaint ClementClement
Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul.
Pope Clement I (Clemens Romanus; Greek: Κλήμης Ῥώμης; died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99.

Papal primacy

papal authorityPrimacy of the Bishop of Romeprimacy
The primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.
Papal primacy, also known as the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is due to the Pope from other bishops and their Episcopal sees.

Pope Victor I

Victor IVictorPope Victor
In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them.
Pope Victor I (Birth year not known - died 199) was Bishop of Rome and hence a pope, in the late second century (189–199 A.D.).

Dogma in the Catholic Church

dogmaCatholic dogmaRoman Catholic dogma
By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been increasingly firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair (of Saint Peter)"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
This may occur through an ex cathedra decision by a Pope, or by an Ecumenical Council.

Ecumenical council

ecumenical councilsCouncil Fathergeneral council
They also cite the importance accorded to the Bishops of Rome in the ecumenical councils, including the early ones.
While the Eastern Orthodox Church accepts no later council or synod as ecumenical, the Roman Catholic Church continues to hold general councils of the bishops in full communion with the Pope, reckoning them as ecumenical.

Pope Liberius

LiberiusLiberius of RomeLiberius the Confessor
Great defenders of Trinitarian faith included the popes, especially Pope Liberius, who was exiled to Berea by Constantius II for his Trinitarian faith, Damasus I, and several other bishops.
Pope Liberius (310 – 24 September 366) was Pope of the Church in Rome from 17 May 352 until his death on 24 September 366.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs.
The formal break, known as the East–West Schism, came in 1054, when the papacy and the patriarchy of Constantinople clashed over papal supremacy and excommunicated each other, which led to the division of Christianity into two Churches—the Western branch became the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern branch the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Pope Stephen II

Stephen IIIIÉtienne II
These humiliations, the weakening of the Byzantine Empire in the face of the Muslim conquests, and the inability of the emperor to protect the papal estates against the Lombards, made Pope Stephen II turn from Emperor Constantine V.
Pope Stephen II (Stephanus II (or III); 714 – 26 April 757 ) a Roman aristocrat was Bishop of Rome from 26 March 752 to his death in 757.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
While the civil power in the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the church, and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the capital, wielded much power, in the Western Roman Empire, the Bishops of Rome were able to consolidate the influence and power they already possessed.
The papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800 marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions.

Episcopal see

seeseessee city
While his office is called the papacy, the jurisdiction of the episcopal see is called the Holy See.
The episcopal see of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is known as "the Holy See" or "the Apostolic See", claiming Papal supremacy.

Pope Leo III

Leo IIIIIILeo III, Pope of Rome
When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a Pope.
Pope Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.

Bishop

episcopateepiscopal consecrationbishops
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (pontifex maximus), is the bishop of Rome, leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state representing the Holy See.
This can be clearly seen in the ministry of two popes: Pope Leo I in the 5th century, and Pope Gregory I in the 6th century.