Pope Leo III

Leo IIIIIILeo III, Pope of Romepope
Pope Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.wikipedia
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Charlemagne

Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharles
Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans". Leo was assaulted in Rome by partisans of the late Pope Adrian I, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn.
He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter's Basilica.

Pope

PapacypapalBishop of Rome
Pope Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a Pope.

Papal States

Papal StatePapalPapal Army
Pope Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
The cooperation between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty climaxed in 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as 'Emperor of the Romans'.

Rome

Rome, ItalyRomanRoma
Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans".
On the Christmas night of 800, Charlemagne was crowned in Rome as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III: on that occasion the city hosted for the first time the two powers whose struggle for the universal power was to be a constant of the Middle Ages.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans".
For this reason, Charlemagne, the King of the Franks and King of Italy, was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope Leo III, as the successor of Constantine VI as Roman Emperor under the concept of translatio imperii.

Paderborn

Paderborn, GermanyNeuhausSchloß Neuhaus
The Duke of Spoleto sheltered the fugitive pope, who went later to Paderborn, where the king's camp then was.
In 799 Pope Leo III fled his enemies in Rome and reached Paderborn, where he met Charlemagne, and stayed there for three months.

Karolus magnus et Leo papa

Paderborn Epic
This meeting forms the basis of the epic poem Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa.
It recounts the meeting of Charlemagne, king of the Franks, with Pope Leo III, in AD 799.

Franks

FrankishFrankFrankish kingdom
It is quite possible that this haste may have been due to a desire on the part of the Romans to anticipate any interference of the Franks with their freedom of election.
With the coronation of their ruler Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 AD, he and his successors were recognised as legitimate successors to the emperors of the Western Roman Empire.

Irene of Athens

IreneEmpress IreneEirene
The coronation offended Constantinople, which had seen itself still as the rightful defender of Rome, but the Eastern Roman Empress Irene of Athens, like many of her predecessors since Justinian, was too weak to offer protection to the city or its much reduced citizenry.
Irene's alleged unprecedented status as a female ruler of the Roman Empire (there had been women ruling the empire in their own right before, notably Pulcheria) led Pope Leo III to proclaim Charlemagne emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on Christmas Day of 800 under the pretext that a woman could not rule and so the throne of the Roman Empire was actually vacant.

Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor

coronationimperial coronationcrowned
Two days after Leo's oath, on Christmas Day 800, he crowned Charlemagne as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Pope Adrian I

Pope Hadrian IAdrian IHadrian I
Leo was assaulted in Rome by partisans of the late Pope Adrian I, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn. He also reversed the decision of his predecessor Pope Adrian I in regards to the granting of the pallium to Hygeberht, Bishop of Lichfield.

Bishop of Lichfield

Bishop of Coventry and LichfieldBishop of Lichfield and CoventryLichfield
He also reversed the decision of his predecessor Pope Adrian I in regards to the granting of the pallium to Hygeberht, Bishop of Lichfield.
However the Archbishopric of Lichfield only lasted for 16 years, ending after Offa's death, when at the Fifth Council of Clovesho it was restored to Æthelhard, Archbishop of Canterbury, by Pope Leo III.

Filioque

Filioque clauseprocession of the Holy Spiritfilioque" clause
Leo forbade the addition of the filioque to the Nicene Creed, when asked to confirm the decision of a Council of Aachen held in 809.
and Leo I, who qualified as "impious" those who say "there is not one who begat, another who is begotten, another who proceeded from both [alius qui de utroque processerit]"; he also accepted the Council of Chalcedon, with its reaffirmation of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, in its original "from the Father" form, as much later did his successor Pope Leo III who professed his faith in the teaching expressed by the Filioque, while opposing its inclusion in the Creed.

Santa Susanna

S. SusannaCardinal-Priest of Santa SusannaChurch of Santa Susanna
This first three-aisled basilica was almost certainly built under the pontificate of Pope Leo III (795–816).

Pope Clement X

Clement XEmilio Bonaventura AltieriEmilio Altieri
Leo III was canonized by Pope Clement X, who, in 1673, had Leo's name entered in the Roman Martyrology.
In 1673, he had Pope Leo III's name entered in the Roman Martyrology.

Pope Stephen IV

Stephen IVIV
At a young age he was raised at the Lateran Palace during the pontificate of Pope Adrian I, and it was under Stephen's predecessor Pope Leo III that he was first ordained a Subdeacon before he was subsequently made a Deacon.

Eardwulf of Northumbria

EardwulfSt Hardulph
Leo helped restore King Eardwulf of Northumbria and settled various matters of dispute between the Archbishops of York and Canterbury.
Letters between Charlemagne and Pope Leo III suggest that Coenwulf had a hand in Eardwulf's removal.

Hygeberht

HigbertHygberhtHigbert of Lichfield
He also reversed the decision of his predecessor Pope Adrian I in regards to the granting of the pallium to Hygeberht, Bishop of Lichfield.
In 797 and 798 Coenwulf sent envoys to Rome to Pope Leo III, suggesting that a new archdiocese be created at London for Æthelhard.

List of Catholic saints

Catholic saintsCatholic saintList of Roman Catholic saints

Augustus

OctavianCaesar AugustusAugustus Caesar
Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans".

Vestararius

sacri palatii vestarariusvestiariosvestiarius
At the time of his election he was Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna, and seemingly also vestiarius, or chief of the pontifical treasury, or wardrobe.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
Charlemagne's reply stated that it was his function to defend the Church, and the function of the pope to pray for the realm and for the victory of his army.

Missus dominicus

missi dominicimissimissus
He was rescued by two of the king's missi dominici, who came with a considerable force.

Adultery

adulterousaffairadulterer
His enemies had accused Leo of adultery and perjury.

Perjury

perjuredfalse testimonyperjurer
His enemies had accused Leo of adultery and perjury.