Pope Paul III

Paul IIIAlessandro FarneseCardinal FarnesePopeAlessandro Farnese, future Pope Paul IIIAlexander FarneseCardinal Alessandro FarneseCardinal Alessandro Farnese ''seniorFarneseIII
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.wikipedia
923 Related Articles

Counter-Reformation

Counter ReformationCounterreformationCatholic Reformation
His pontificate initiated the Counter-Reformation with the Council of Trent in 1545, as well as the Wars of religion with Emperor Charles V's military campaigns against the Protestants in Germany.
Pope Paul III (1534–1549) is considered the first pope of the Counter-Reformation, and he also initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, the sale of indulgences, and other financial abuses.

Council of Trent

Tridentinepost-TridentineTridentine Council
His pontificate initiated the Counter-Reformation with the Council of Trent in 1545, as well as the Wars of religion with Emperor Charles V's military campaigns against the Protestants in Germany.
Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV.

House of Farnese

FarneseFarnese familyfamily of the previous Pope
The Farnese family had prospered over the centuries but it was Alessandro's ascendency to the papacy and his dedication to family interests which brought about the most significant increase in the family's wealth and power.
Its most important members included Pope Paul III, Alessandro Farnese (a cardinal), Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (a military commander and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands), and Elisabeth Farnese, who became Queen of Spain and whose legacy was brought to her Bourbon descendants.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VEmperor Charles VCharles I of Spain
His pontificate initiated the Counter-Reformation with the Council of Trent in 1545, as well as the Wars of religion with Emperor Charles V's military campaigns against the Protestants in Germany.
Meanwhile, Charles V had come to an agreement with Pope Paul III for the organisation of the Council of Trent (1545).

Giulia Farnese

GiuliaGiulia "La Bella" FarneseJulia Orsini
Farnese's sister, Giulia, was reputedly a mistress of Alexander VI, and might have been instrumental in securing this appointment for her brother.
Giulia Farnese (1474 – 23 March 1524) was mistress to Pope Alexander VI, and the sister of Pope Paul III.

Alessandro Farnese (cardinal)

Alessandro FarneseCardinal Alessandro FarneseAlexander Farnese
The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, and Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV.
Alessandro Farnese (5 October 1520 – 2 March 1589), an Italian cardinal and diplomat and a great collector and patron of the arts, was the grandson of Pope Paul III (who also bore the name Alessandro Farnese), and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was murdered in 1547.

Nepotism

nepotisticnepotistnephew
His efforts were distracted by nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family, including his illegitimate son Pier Luigi Farnese.
Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III.

Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia

Consilium de emendenda ecclesia
In 1537 they produced the celebrated Consilium de emendenda ecclesia, exposing gross abuses in the Roman Curia, the church administration, and public worship; and proffering bold proposals aimed at abolishing such abuses.
The Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia was a report commissioned by Pope Paul III on the abuses in the Catholic Church in 1536.

Papal States

Papal StatePapalPapal Army
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
In 1512 the state of the church annexed Parma and Piacenza, which in 1545 became an independent ducate under an illegitimate son of Pope Paul III.

Dean of the College of Cardinals

Dean of the Sacred College of CardinalsDean of the Sacred CollegeDean
Under Pope Clement VII (1523–34) he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the College of Cardinals, and on the death of Clement VII in 1534, was elected as Pope Paul III.
Nine Deans have been elected pope: Anastasius IV, Lucius III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV, John XXI, Alexander VI, Paul III, Paul IV, Benedict XVI.

Pope Alexander VI

Alexander VIRodrigo BorgiaRodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI
Initially trained as an apostolic notary, he joined the Roman Curia in 1491 and in 1493 Pope Alexander VI appointed him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano.
Alessandro Farnese (later Pope Paul III), the brother of one of the Pope's mistresses, Giulia Farnese, was also among the newly created cardinals.

Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora

Guido Ascanio SforzaCardinal Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa FioraCardinal of Santa Fiora
The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, and Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV.
Born in Rome, he was the son of Costanza Farnese and therefore grandson of Pope Paul III, brother of Cardinal Alessandro Sforza (1565), uncle of Cardinal Francesco Sforza and great-uncle of Cardinal Federico Sforza (1645).

Costanza Farnese

ConstanzaCostanza
As a young cleric, Alessandro lived a notably dissolute life, taking a mistress, Silvia Ruffini, and having three sons and two daughters with her, including Pier Luigi II Farnese, whom he created Duke of Parma, as well as Ranuccio Farnese and Costanza Farnese.
Costanza Farnese (December 19, 1500 in Rome – May 23, 1545 in Rome) was a daughter of Alessandro Farnese and Silvia Ruffini, born before her father became Pope Paul III.

Duke of Parma

Duke of Parma and PiacenzaDukes of ParmaDuchess of Parma
As a young cleric, Alessandro lived a notably dissolute life, taking a mistress, Silvia Ruffini, and having three sons and two daughters with her, including Pier Luigi II Farnese, whom he created Duke of Parma, as well as Ranuccio Farnese and Costanza Farnese.

Society of Jesus

JesuitJesuitsS.J.
He recognized new Catholic religious orders and societies such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, and the Congregation of the Oratory.
It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola with the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540.

Ranuccio Farnese (1509–1529)

RanuccioRanuccio Farnese
As a young cleric, Alessandro lived a notably dissolute life, taking a mistress, Silvia Ruffini, and having three sons and two daughters with her, including Pier Luigi II Farnese, whom he created Duke of Parma, as well as Ranuccio Farnese and Costanza Farnese.
Ranuccio Farnese was the natural son of Alessandro Farnese by Silvia Ruffini, born before his father was elected pope as Paul III.

Giovanni Morone

Giovanni Girolamo MoroneCardinal MoroneGiovanni Gerolamo Morone
Accordingly, the Pope despatched Giovanni Morone (not yet a cardinal) as nuncio to Hagenau and Worms in 1540; while in 1541, Cardinal Gasparo Contarini took part in the adjustment proceedings at the Conference of Regensburg.
He was named Bishop of Modena in 1529 and was created Cardinal in 1542 by Pope Paul III.

University of Pisa

PisaPisa UniversityUniversità di Pisa
Alessandro's humanist education was at the University of Pisa and the court of Lorenzo de' Medici.

Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma

Ottavio FarneseOttavioDuke of Parma
In order to vest his grandson Ottavio Farnese with the dukedom of Camerino, Paul forcibly wrested the same from the duke of Urbino (1540).
Born in Valentano, he was the second son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, grandson of Pope Paul III, and brother to Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese.

Nicolaus Copernicus

CopernicusCopernicanNicholas Copernicus
Paul III was a significant patron of artists including Michelangelo, and it is to him that Nicolaus Copernicus dedicated his heliocentric treatise.
Despite urgings from many quarters, Copernicus delayed publication of his book, perhaps from fear of criticism—a fear delicately expressed in the subsequent dedication of his masterpiece to Pope Paul III.

Pope Paul IV

Paul IVGian Pietro CarafaGiovanni Pietro Carafa
The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, and Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV.
But Carafa was recalled to Rome by the reform-minded Pope Paul III (1534–49), to sit on a committee of reform of the papal court, an appointment that forecast an end to a humanist papacy and a revival of scholasticism, for Carafa was a thorough disciple of Thomas Aquinas.

Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Ostia

Bishop of OstiaBishop of Ostia e VelletriOstia
Under Pope Clement VII (1523–34) he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the College of Cardinals, and on the death of Clement VII in 1534, was elected as Pope Paul III.

Sack of Rome (1527)

Sack of RomeSack of Rome in 1527sacked Rome
He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation.
In 1545, eleven years after Clement's death, his successor Pope Paul III convened the Council of Trent, which as the Emperor predicted, did much to reform the corruption then present in certain orders of the Catholic Church.

Reginald Pole

Cardinal PoleCardinal Reginald PoleReginald Cardinal Pole
The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, and Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV.
Pope Paul III put him in charge of organising assistance for the Pilgrimage of Grace (and related movements), an effort to organise a march on London to demand Henry replace his ‘reformist’ advisers with more traditional, Catholic minds; neither Francis I of France nor the Emperor supported this effort, and the English government tried to have Pole assassinated.

Gasparo Contarini

Cardinal ContariniContariniGasparo Cardinal Contarini
The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, and Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV. Accordingly, the Pope despatched Giovanni Morone (not yet a cardinal) as nuncio to Hagenau and Worms in 1540; while in 1541, Cardinal Gasparo Contarini took part in the adjustment proceedings at the Conference of Regensburg.
In 1535, Paul III unexpectedly made the secular diplomat a cardinal in order to bind an able man of evangelical disposition to the Roman interests.