A report on Pope Pius IV

Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1560s
Pope Pius IV

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.

- Pope Pius IV
Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1560s

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Rome

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Capital city of Italy.

Capital city of Italy.

Roman representation of the god Tiber, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Capitoline Wolf, a sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine, a series of palaces located in the Palatine Hill, express power and wealth of emperors from Augustus until the 4th century.
The Imperial fora belong to a series of monumental fora (public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also seen in the image is Trajan's Market.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5 e6km2 of land surface.
The Roman Forum are the remains of those buildings that during most of Ancient Rome's time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.
Trajan's Column, triumphal column and place where the relics of Emperor Trajan are placed.
The Pyramid of Cestius and the Aurelian Walls
15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visigothic king Alaric I
Detail view on an illustration by Raphael portraying the crowning of Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's Basilica, on 25 December 800
Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro (from 1575) shows the city's primary monuments.
Castel Sant'Angelo or Hadrian's Mausoleum, is a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance built in 134 AD and crowned with 16th and 17th-century statues.
Fontana della Barcaccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1629
Carnival in Rome, c. 1650
A View of the Piazza Navona, Rome, Hendrik Frans van Lint, c. 1730
Bombardment of Rome by Allied planes, 1943
The municipi of Rome
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian Republic
Satellite image of Rome
Aerial view of part of Rome's Centro Storico
Stone pines in the Villa Doria Pamphili
The Esquilino rione
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, one of the four papal major basilicas and has numerous architectural styles, built between the 4th century and 1743
St. Peter's Basilica at night from Via della Conciliazione in Rome
The Pantheon, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future"
The Colosseum is still today the largest amphitheater in the world. It was used for gladiator shows and other public events (hunting shows, recreations of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology).
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana in EUR district
The Temple of Aesculapius, in the Villa Borghese gardens
The Trevi Fountain. Construction began during the time of Ancient Rome and was completed in 1762 by a design of Nicola Salvi.
Fontana dei Fiumi by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1648
Flaminio Obelisk, Piazza del Popolo
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset
The Vatican Caves, the place where many popes are buried
Rome chamber of commerce in the ancient Temple of Hadrian
The Sapienza University of Rome, founded in 1303
Biblioteca Casanatense
National Central Library
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma at the Piazza Beniamino Gigli
The Spanish Steps
Ostia Lido beach
The Vatican Museums are the 3rd most visited art museum in the world.
Via Condotti
Spaghetti alla carbonara, a typical Roman dish
Concia di zucchine, an example of Roman-Jewish cuisine
Sepulchral inscription for Tiberius Claudius Tiberinus, a Plebeian and professional declaimer of poetry. 1st century AD, Museo Nazionale Romano
Stadio Olimpico, home of A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, is one of the largest in Europe, with a capacity of over 70,000.
Stadio dei Marmi
Rome–Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in Europe in 2016.
Port of Civitavecchia
Roma Metrorail and Underground map, 2016
Conca d'Oro metro station
FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
WFP headquarters in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the Square Samuel-Paty in Paris
Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734

Under the popes from Pius IV to Sixtus V, Rome became the centre of a reformed Catholicism and saw the building of new monuments which celebrated the papacy.

Council of Trent, painting in the Museo del Palazzo del Buonconsiglio, Trento

Council of Trent

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The 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

The 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

Council of Trent, painting in the Museo del Palazzo del Buonconsiglio, Trento
Pope Paul III, convener of the Council of Trent.
The Council, depicted by Pasquale Cati (Cati da Iesi)
Andrada, a Catholic
Chemnitz, a Lutheran

Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV.

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank

House of Medici

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Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici, in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici, in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank
The Confirmation of the Rule, by Domenico Ghirlandaio
Cosimo Pater patriae, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
The Medici Wedding Tapestry of 1589
Cosimo I, founder of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
From left to right: The Grand Duchess Maria Maddalena, The Grand Duke Cosimo II, and their elder son, the future Ferdinando II
Cosimo III, the Medicean grand duke, in Grand Ducal regalia
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the last of the Grand Ducal line, in Minerva, Merkur und Plutus huldigen der Kurfürstin Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici) after Antonio Bellucci, 1706
The family of Piero de' Medici portrayed by Sandro Botticelli in the Madonna del Magnificat.
Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.
Here seen sliced in half, an art historian suggests that whole blood oranges could be the imagery in the Medici coats of arms
Old coat of arms of the Medici used by Giovanni di Bicci and Cosimo the Elder
The intermediate coat of arms of the Medici, Or, six balls in orle gules
The "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) was granted by Louis XI in 1465.<ref name=Woodward162>John Woodward, A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry, 1894, p. 162</ref>
Great coat of arms of Medici of Ottajano
Augmented Arms of Medici
Coat of Arms of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany
Coat of arms of Medici popes
Coat of arms of the Medici Cardinals
Coat of Arms of Catherine of Medici, as Queen of France
Coat of Arms of Maria of Medici, as Queen of France
Achievement of the House of de' Medici
Coat of Arms of the Grand-Duchy of Tuscany

The Medici produced four popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) and Pope Leo XI (1605)—and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1610).

Portrait by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino

Charles Borromeo

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The Archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.

The Archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.

Portrait by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino
Intercession of Charles Borromeo supported by the Virgin Mary by Rottmayr (Karlskirche, Vienna)
Charles Borromeo intercedes during the plague; painting by Jacob Jordaens (1655)
Painting by Francesco Caccianiga showing an angel tending to Charles Borromeo
Crypt of Charles Borromeo, in the Duomo di Milano
Il Sancarlone (The huge Saint Charles): colossal statue of Carlo Borromeo erected in Arona, Italy in 1697. The work of Giovanni Battista Crespi, the statue is 23 m tall and stands on a plinth 12 m in height.
Depiction of Charles Borromeo in a stained glass window

On 25 December 1559 Borromeo's uncle Cardinal Giovanni Angelo Medici was elected as Pope Pius IV.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1566, Walters Art Museum in Baltimore)

Pope Pius V

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Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1566, Walters Art Museum in Baltimore)
Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1578
Pius V by Palma il Giovane.
The body of Pius V in his tomb in Santa Maria Maggiore
Portrait of Pius V by Pierre Le Gros on the tomb

He also stood firm against nepotism, rebuking his predecessor Pope Pius IV to his face when he wanted to make a 13-year-old member of his family a cardinal and subsidize a nephew from the papal treasury.

Baths of Diocletian, with the basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri built in the remains of the baths

Baths of Diocletian

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The Baths of Diocletian (Latin: Thermae Diocletiani, Italian: Terme di Diocleziano) were public baths in ancient Rome.

The Baths of Diocletian (Latin: Thermae Diocletiani, Italian: Terme di Diocleziano) were public baths in ancient Rome.

Baths of Diocletian, with the basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri built in the remains of the baths
Reconstructed floorplan: 1=Caldarium
2=Tepidarium
3=Frigidarium
4=Natatio
5=Palaestra
6=main entrance
7=Exedra
Cross-section of the Baths of Diocletian, rendering by French architect Edmond Paulin, 1880
Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, built in the ruins of the baths
Funerary stele of a cook. Latin inscription: “Eros, cocus Posidippi, ser(vus) hic situs est” (“Eros, Posidippus' cook, slave, lies here”).
San Bernardo alle Terme

In the 1560s, Pope Pius IV ordered the building of a basilica in some of the remains, to commemorate Christian martyrs who according to legend died during the baths' construction, Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri.

Pope Pius IV promulgates the bull "Benedictus Deus"

Benedictus Deus (Pius IV)

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Pope Pius IV promulgates the bull "Benedictus Deus"

Benedictus Deus is a papal bull written by Pius IV in 1564 which ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent.

The internal façade of Porta Pia.

Porta Pia

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Gate in the Aurelian Walls of Rome, Italy.

Gate in the Aurelian Walls of Rome, Italy.

The internal façade of Porta Pia.
The breach of Porta Pia, on the right, in a contemporaneous photograph following the Capture of Rome in 1870.
Country side of Porta Pia.
Kingdom of Italy troops breaching the Aurelian Walls at Porta Pia during the Capture of Rome. Breccia di Porta Pia (1870), by Carlo Ademollo.

One of Pope Pius IV's civic improvements to the city, it is named after him.

1559 papal conclave

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The 1559 papal conclave (5 September – 25 December) was convened on the death of Pope Paul IV and elected Pope Pius IV as his successor.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1586, Friedenstein Palace, Gotha)

Pope Gregory XIII

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Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1586, Friedenstein Palace, Gotha)
Portrait of Gregory XIII by Lavinia Fontana (oil on canvas, private collection)
Detail of the tomb of Pope Gregory XIII celebrating the introduction of the Gregorian calendar.
The Japanese ambassadors of Tennsho, Keisho, headed by Itō Mancio meet with Pope Gregory XIII in 1585.
Ugonottorum Strages medal

Pope Paul IV (1555–1559) attached him as datarius to the suite of Cardinal Carlo Carafa, Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) made him Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio and sent him to the Council of Trent.