Pope Pius XI

Pius XIAchille Rattithe PopePopepapalPope Pious XIPope Pius (Pié) XIPope Piux XIthe Holy FatherXI
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.wikipedia
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Feast of Christ the King

Christ the KingSolemnity of Christ the KingChrist-Roi
Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
The Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe, commonly referred to as the Feast of Christ the King or Christ the King Sunday, is a relatively recent addition to the Western liturgical calendar, having been instituted in 1925 by Pope Pius XI for the Roman Catholic Church.

Quadragesimo anno

Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
Quadragesimo anno (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum, further developing Catholic social teaching.

Mit brennender Sorge

accused the Nazi government
To establish or maintain the position of the Catholic Church, Pius XI concluded a record number of concordats, including the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany, whose betrayals of which he condemned four years later in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge ("With Burning Concern").
Mit brennender Sorge, "With burning concern") On the Church and the German Reich is an encyclical of Pope Pius XI, issued during the Nazi era on 10 March 1937 (but bearing a date of Passion Sunday, 14 March).

Thomas More

Sir Thomas MoreSt. Thomas MoreSaint Thomas More
He canonized important saints, including Thomas More, Peter Canisius, Bernadette of Lourdes and Don Bosco.
Pope Pius XI canonized More in 1935 as a martyr.

Rerum novarum

social-CatholicCatholic encyclicalsgroundbreaking social encyclical
Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
Many of the positions in Rerum novarum were supplemented by later encyclicals, in particular Pius XI's Quadragesimo anno (1931), John XXIII's Mater et magistra (1961) and John Paul II's Centesimus annus (1991).

Quas primas

Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
Quas primas (In the first) was an encyclical of Pope Pius XI.

Vatican City

VaticanVatican City Statethe Vatican
He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929.
This situation was resolved on 11 February 1929, when the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy was signed by Prime Minister and Head of Government Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III and by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri for Pope Pius XI.

Vatican Necropolis

necropolistwo levels of burial grounds
In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St. Peter.
The work was undertaken at the request of Pope Pius XI who wished to be buried as close as possible to Peter the Apostle.

Encyclical

papal encyclicalpapal encyclicalsencyclicals
Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
Popes have differed on the use of encyclicals: on the issue of birth control and contraception, Pope Pius XI issued the encyclical Casti connubii, while Pope Pius XII gave a speech to midwives and the medical profession, clarifying the position of the church on the issue.

Social justice

social injusticeTeaching for social justicesocial
Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
Thus, in 1931, the Pope Pius XI stated the expression for the first time in the Catholic Social Teaching in the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno.

Ambrosian Rite

AmbrosianAmbrosian LiturgyMilanese Rite
During this time, Ratti edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal (the rite of Mass used in Milan), and researched and wrote much on the life and works of St. Charles Borromeo.
In the 20th century, it also gained prominence and prestige from the attentions of two other scholarly Archbishops of Milan: Achille Ratti, later Pope Pius XI, and the Blessed Ildefonso Schuster, both of whom had been involved in studies and publications on the rite before their respective appointments.

Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas

Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, ''AngelicumAngelicumPontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum)
The encyclical also singles out the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum as the preeminent institution for the teaching of Aquinas: "ante omnia Pontificium Collegium Angelicum, ubi Thomam tamquam domi suae habitare dixeris" (before all others the Pontifical Angelicum College, where Thomas can be said to dwell).
Ramirez relates that he was fortunate during his student years to hear Pope Pius X deliver a talk to the professors and students at the Angelicum on 28 June 1914 in which the Pontiff extolled Aquinas' doctrines above those of all others, and another talk delivered by Pope Pius XI at the Angelicum on 12 December 1924 in which he reaffirmed the doctrinal authority of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Pontifical Gregorian University

Gregorian UniversityPontifical GregorianCollegium Romanum
He obtained three doctorates (in philosophy, canon law and theology) at the Gregorian University in Rome, and then from 1882 to 1888 was a professor at the seminary in Padua.
After World War I, Pope Benedict XV and then his successor, Pope Pius XI, worked to create a new site for the university that would be better suited to its needs; it was still operating in Palazzo Gabrielli-Borromeo.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan

Archbishop of MilanBishop of MilanMilan
In the consistory of 3 June 1921, Pope Benedict XV created three new cardinals, including Ratti, who was appointed Archbishop of Milan simultaneously.
Among its past archbishops, the better known are Saint Ambrose, Saint Charles Borromeo, Pope Pius XI and Saint Pope Paul VI.

Cum proxime

Less than a month later, considering that all four cardinals from the Western Hemisphere had been unable to participate in his election, he issued Cum proxime to allow the College of Cardinals to delay the start of a conclave for as long as eighteen days following the death of a pope.
Pope Pius XI instituted a new rule for setting the date for the start of a papal conclave to elect a new pope by promulgating the document Cum proxime on 1 March 1922, less than a month after his own election.

Pietro Gasparri

Gasparri, PietroArchbishop Pietro GasparriCardinal Dr. Gasparri
At the conclave to choose a new pope, which proved to be the longest of the 20th century, the College of Cardinals was divided into two factions, one led by Rafael Merry del Val favoring the policies and style of Pope Pius X and the other favoring those of Pope Benedict XV led by Pietro Gasparri.
He served also as Cardinal Secretary of State under Popes Benedict XV and Pope Pius XI.

Our Lady of Lourdes

LourdesVirgin of LourdesApparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary Immaculate
He accompanied Milanese pilgrims to Lourdes in August 1921.
Soubirous was later canonized as a Catholic saint by Pope Pius XI in 1933.

Casti connubii

Casti connubii ("Chaste Wedlock") (1930) praised Christian marriage and family life as the basis for any good society; it condemned artificial means of contraception, but acknowledged the unitive aspect of intercourse:
Casti connubii (Latin: "of chaste wedlock") is a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XI on 31 December 1930 in response to the Lambeth Conference of the Anglican Communion.

Apostolic Palace

VaticanVatican Palacethe Vatican
Pius XI died on 10 February 1939 in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peter's Basilica.
In the 20th century, Pope Pius XI built a monumental art gallery and museum entrance.

Pope Leo XIII

Leo XIIIGioacchino PecciPope
Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, and social justice issues, and Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism.
Since Leo XIII, Papal teachings have expanded on the rights and obligations of workers and the limitations of private property: Pope Pius XI Quadragesimo anno, the Social teachings of Pope Pius XII on a huge range of social issues, John XXIII Mater et magistra in 1961, Pope Paul VI, the encyclical Populorum progressio on world development issues, and Pope John Paul II, Centesimus annus, commemorating the 100th anniversary of Rerum novarum.

Ubi arcano Dei consilio

Ubi arcano
Ubi arcano, promulgated in December 1922, inaugurated the "Catholic Action" movement.
Ubi arcano Dei consilio (When in the inscrutable designs of God) was Pius XI's first encyclical.

Desio

Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in 1857, the son of an owner of a silk factory.
It is also known as the birthplace of Pope Pius XI and of Marco Sportiello, Atalanta BC goalkeeper.

Biblioteca Ambrosiana

Ambrosian LibraryPinacoteca AmbrosianaAmbrosiana Library
Eventually, he left seminary teaching to work full-time at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, from 1888 to 1911.
Among prominent figures have been Giuseppe Ripamonti, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Giuseppe Antonio Sassi, Cardinal Angelo Mai and, at the beginning of the 20th century, Antonio Maria Ceriani, Achille Ratti (on 8 November 1888, the future Pope Pius XI, and Giovanni Mercati.

Bernadette Soubirous

St. BernadetteSaint BernadetteBernadette
He canonized important saints, including Thomas More, Peter Canisius, Bernadette of Lourdes and Don Bosco.
On 8 December 1933 Pope Pius XI declared Soubirous a saint of the Catholic Church.

Dilectissima Nobis

In his encyclical Dilectissima Nobis (1933), in which he addressed the situation of the Church in Republican Spain, he proclaimed,
Dilectissima Nobis, "On Oppression of the Church of Spain", is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on June 3, 1933, in which he decried persecution of the Church in Spain, citing the expropriation of all Church buildings, episcopal residences, parish houses, seminaries and monasteries.