Popish Plot

plotconspiracy to install a Catholic kingFive Popish LordsOates PlotThe Popish PlotCatholic plotsconspiracy to instal a Catholic kingfeeling against the Roman Catholicsnon-existent Catholic conspiracyOates' scare
The Popish Plot was a conspiracy invented by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria.wikipedia
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Titus Oates

OatesTitus Oates plotTitus Oates's
The Popish Plot was a conspiracy invented by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria.
Titus Oates (15 September 1649 – 12/13 July 1705), also called Titus the Liar, was an English perjurer who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to kill King Charles II.

Charles II of England

Charles IIKing Charles IIKing Charles II of England
Oates alleged that there was an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to the executions of at least 22 men and precipitated the Exclusion Bill Crisis.
In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, was a Catholic.

Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom

anti-CatholicAnti-Catholicismpersecutions of Roman Catholics
The Popish Plot was a conspiracy invented by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria.
The 'Popish Plot' involving Titus Oates further exacerbated Anglican-Catholic relations.

Catherine of Braganza

Queen CatherineCatharine of BraganzaCatherine
Anti-Catholicism was fueled by doubts about the religious allegiance of the King, who had married a Catholic princess, Catherine of Portugal and formed an alliance with France, then the leading Catholic power in Europe, against the Protestant Netherlands.
She was a special object of attack by the inventors of the Popish Plot.

Israel Tonge

The Tomb Rat
Oates and Israel Tonge, a fanatically anti-Catholic clergyman (who was widely believed to be insane), had written a large manuscript that accused the Catholic Church authorities of approving the assassination of Charles II.
He was an informer in and probably one of the inventors of the "Popish" plot.

A True Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish-Plot

propaganda
After the latter, rumors and propaganda floated around about arson, with Catholics and especially Jesuits as the first to be blamed.
A True Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish Plot is a late seventeenth-century English broadside ballad telling the story of the contemporary anti-Catholic scare in England known as the Popish Plot.

Edward Colman

Edward ColemanColemanColman
He accused Sir George Wakeman and Edward Colman, the secretary to Mary of Modena Duchess of York, of planning the assassination.
He was hanged, drawn and quartered on a treason charge, having been implicated by Titus Oates in his false accusations concerning a Popish Plot.

James II of England

James IIKing James IIJames, Duke of York
Furthermore, Charles' brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, had embraced Catholicism, although his brother forbade him to make any public announcement.
A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and to put the Duke of York on the throne.

John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse

John BelasyseLord BelasyseJohn
Others Oates accused included Dr. William Fogarty, Archbishop Peter Talbot of Dublin, Samuel Pepys and John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse. Oates became more daring and accused five Catholic lords (William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, Henry Arundell, 3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour, William Petre, 4th Baron Petre and John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse) of involvement in the plot.
He suffered a long spell of imprisonment during the Popish Plot, although he was never brought to trial.

Miles Prance

Oates' associate William Bedloe denounced the silversmith Miles Prance, who in turn named three working men, Berry, Green and Hill, who were tried, convicted and executed in February 1679; but it rapidly became clear that they were completely innocent, and that Prance, who had been subjected to torture, named them simply to gain his freedom (Kenyon suggests that he may have chosen men against whom he had a personal grudge, or he may simply have chosen them because they were the first Catholics acquaintances of his who came to mind).
Miles Prance (fl. 1678) was an English Roman Catholic craftsman who was caught up in and perjured himself during the Popish Plot and the resulting anti-Catholic hysteria in London during the reign of Charles II.

William Petre, 4th Baron Petre

Lord PetreWilliam Petre, fourth Baron PetreWilliam, Lord Petre
Oates became more daring and accused five Catholic lords (William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, Henry Arundell, 3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour, William Petre, 4th Baron Petre and John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse) of involvement in the plot.
William Petre, 4th Baron Petre (1626 – 5 January 1684) was an English peer and victim of the Popish Plot.

William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford

Lord StaffordViscount StaffordWilliam Howard
Oates became more daring and accused five Catholic lords (William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, Henry Arundell, 3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour, William Petre, 4th Baron Petre and John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse) of involvement in the plot.
A Fellow of the Royal Society from 1665, he was a Royalist supporter before being falsely implicated by Titus Oates in the later discredited "Popish Plot", and executed for treason.

Henry Arundell, 3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour

Lord ArundellArundellsHenry 3rd Lord Arundell
Oates became more daring and accused five Catholic lords (William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, Henry Arundell, 3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour, William Petre, 4th Baron Petre and John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse) of involvement in the plot.
During the Popish Plot he suffered a long period of imprisonment, although he was never brought to trial.

Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds

Earl of DanbyLord DanbyDanby
Charles told Kirkby to present Tonge to Thomas Osborne, Lord Danby, Lord High Treasurer, then the most influential of the King's ministers.
Danby, when communicating the "Popish Plot" to Parliament, had from the first expressed his disbelief in Titus Oates's revelations, he now stood accused of having "traitorously concealed the plot".

Mary of Modena

Queen MaryMaria Beatrice d'EsteDuchess of York
He accused Sir George Wakeman and Edward Colman, the secretary to Mary of Modena Duchess of York, of planning the assassination.
The plot, known as the Popish Plot, led to the Exclusionist movement, which was headed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury.

Stephen Dugdale

The evidence of Oates and Bedloe was supplemented by other informers; some like Thomas Dangerfield, were notorious criminals, but others like Stephen Dugdale, Robert Jenison and Edward Turberville were men of good social standing who from motives of greed or revenge denounced innocent victims, and by their apparently plausible evidence made the Plot seem more credible.
Stephen Dugdale (1640?-1683) was an English informer, and self-proclaimed discoverer of parts of the Popish Plot (which was in reality a complete fabrication of his fellow informer Titus Oates).

Paul Barillon

BarillonPaul Barillon d'Amoncourt
The King had a long and frank talk with Paul Barillon, the French ambassador, in which he made it clear that he did not believe that there was a word of truth in the plot, and that Oates was "a wicked man"; but that by now he had come round to the view that there must be an investigation, particularly with Parliament about to reassemble.
Charles II, at the outbreak of the Popish Plot, did tell Barillon openly that Titus Oates, the inventor of the Plot, was a villain, and that the Plot itself an invention, but that it would be unwise to say so publicly.

Edward Turberville

The evidence of Oates and Bedloe was supplemented by other informers; some like Thomas Dangerfield, were notorious criminals, but others like Stephen Dugdale, Robert Jenison and Edward Turberville were men of good social standing who from motives of greed or revenge denounced innocent victims, and by their apparently plausible evidence made the Plot seem more credible.
1648 – 1681) was a Welsh professional soldier, better known to history as an informer who perjured himself in support of the allegations made during the fictitious Popish Plot.

Great Fire of London

Great FireGreat Fire of 1666Fire of London
Anti-Catholic hysteria flared up lightly during the reign of Charles II, which saw various disasters such as the Great Plague of London (1665) and the Great Fire of London (1666).
These allegations that Catholics had started the fire were exploited as powerful political propaganda by opponents of pro-Catholic Charles II's court, mostly during the Popish Plot and the exclusion crisis later in his reign.

Thomas Dangerfield

Dangerfield
The evidence of Oates and Bedloe was supplemented by other informers; some like Thomas Dangerfield, were notorious criminals, but others like Stephen Dugdale, Robert Jenison and Edward Turberville were men of good social standing who from motives of greed or revenge denounced innocent victims, and by their apparently plausible evidence made the Plot seem more credible.
1650 – 22 June 1685) was an English conspirator, who became one of the principal informers in the Popish Plot.

George Wakeman

Sir George Wakeman
He accused Sir George Wakeman and Edward Colman, the secretary to Mary of Modena Duchess of York, of planning the assassination. Charles was dismissive but Kirkby stated that he knew the names of assassins who planned to shoot the King and, if that failed, the Queen's physician, Sir George Wakeman, would poison him.
In their perjured narrative of the Popish Plot, Titus Oates and Israel Tonge declared that Wakeman had been offered £10,000 to poison Charles II's posset, and that he could easily effect this through the agency of the Queen.

Oliver Plunkett

Saint Oliver PlunkettSt. Oliver PlunkettSt Oliver Plunkett
The Plot gained some credence in Ireland, where the two Catholic Archbishops, Plunkett and Talbot were the principal victims, but not in Scotland.
Oliver Plunkett (or Oliver Plunket) (Oilibhéar Pluincéid), (1 November 1625 – 1 July 1681) was the Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland who was the last victim of the Popish Plot.

Gunpowder Plot

Gunpowder TreasonThe Gunpowder PlotGunpowder plotters
Anti-Catholic sentiment reached new heights in 1605 after the Gunpowder Plot was discovered.
The Popish Plot of 1678 sparked renewed interest in the Gunpowder Plot, resulting in a book by Thomas Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln, which refuted "a bold and groundless surmise that all this was a contrivance of Secretary Cecil".

Peter Talbot (bishop)

Peter TalbotArchbishop Peter TalbotPeter
Others Oates accused included Dr. William Fogarty, Archbishop Peter Talbot of Dublin, Samuel Pepys and John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse. The Plot gained some credence in Ireland, where the two Catholic Archbishops, Plunkett and Talbot were the principal victims, but not in Scotland.
He was a victim of the mythical Popish Plot.

William Bedloe

Oates' associate William Bedloe denounced the silversmith Miles Prance, who in turn named three working men, Berry, Green and Hill, who were tried, convicted and executed in February 1679; but it rapidly became clear that they were completely innocent, and that Prance, who had been subjected to torture, named them simply to gain his freedom (Kenyon suggests that he may have chosen men against whom he had a personal grudge, or he may simply have chosen them because they were the first Catholics acquaintances of his who came to mind).
Then in 1678, following the lead of Titus Oates, he gave an account of a supposed Popish Plot to the English government, and his version of the details of the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey was rewarded with £500.