Popular culture

pop culturepop-culturemass culturepopularpoppop culturalpopular entertainmentmainstream culturepop-culturalpopular media
Popular culture (also called mass culture and pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the practices, beliefs and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.wikipedia
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Working-class culture

working class cultureproletarian cultureclass culture
It is generally viewed in contrast to other forms of culture such as folk culture, working-class culture, or high culture, and also through different theoretical perspectives such as psychoanalysis, structuralism, postmodernism, and more.
The cultures can be contrasted with high culture and folk culture, and are sometimes equated with popular culture and low culture (the counterpart of high culture).

High culture

high arthighculture
It is generally viewed in contrast to other forms of culture such as folk culture, working-class culture, or high culture, and also through different theoretical perspectives such as psychoanalysis, structuralism, postmodernism, and more.
Sociologically, the term high culture is contrasted with the term low culture, the forms of popular culture characteristic of the less-educated social classes, such as the barbarians, the Philistines, and hoi polloi (the masses).

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
It is generally viewed in contrast to other forms of culture such as folk culture, working-class culture, or high culture, and also through different theoretical perspectives such as psychoanalysis, structuralism, postmodernism, and more.
Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are also found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.

Cultural icon

iconiciconicons
The most common pop-culture categories are: entertainment (such as movies, music, television and video games), sports, news (as in people/places in the news), politics, fashion, technology, and slang.
In the media, many items and persons of popular culture have been called "iconic" despite their lack of durability, and the term "pop icon" is often now used synonymously.

Mainstream

mainstream audiencemainstream sciencepopular
Popular culture is sometimes viewed by many people as being trivial and "dumbed down" in order to find consensual acceptance from (or to attract attention amongst) the mainstream.
It includes all popular culture and media culture, typically disseminated by mass media.

Dumbing down

dumbed downdumbed-downdumbing-down
Popular culture is sometimes viewed by many people as being trivial and "dumbed down" in order to find consensual acceptance from (or to attract attention amongst) the mainstream.
Dumbing-down varies according to subject matter, and usually involves the diminishment of critical thought, by undermining intellectual standards within language and learning; thus trivializing meaningful information, culture, and academic standards, as in the case of popular culture.

Penny dreadful

penny dreadfulsJack Harkawaypenny fiction
Labelling penny dreadfuls the Victorian equivalent of video games, The Guardian in 2016 described penny fiction as "Britain's first taste of mass-produced popular culture for the young".
The Guardian described penny dreadfuls as “Britain’s first taste of mass-produced popular culture for the young.”

Culture of the United States

American cultureAmerican popular cultureAmerican
From a Western European perspective, this may be compared to American culture.
Because of its size and influence, many American cultural elements, especially from popular culture, have spread across the globe through modern mass media.

Antonio Gramsci

GramsciGramscian(Antonio Gramsci
Studies of Shakespeare (by Weimann, Barber, or Bristol, for example) locate much of the characteristic vitality of his drama in its participation in Renaissance popular culture, while contemporary practitioners like Dario Fo and John McGrath use popular culture in its Gramscian sense that includes ancient folk traditions (the commedia dell'arte for example).
The notebooks cover a wide range of topics, including Italian history and nationalism, the French Revolution, fascism, Fordism, civil society, folklore, religion and high and popular culture.

Ronald Daus

Important contemporary contributions for understanding what popular culture means have been given by the German researcher Ronald Daus, who studies the impact of extra-European cultures in North America, Asia, and especially in Latin America.
Focusing on «extra-European cities, predominantly in the Southern hemisphere», introducing new study objects in the traditional science of Romania, innovating in cultural anthropology, ethnology and sociology in the areas of popular culture, urban human settlements and architecture, Daus is responsible for «new approaches to excel old theories», contributing for a better understanding of contemporary world».

Slang

slang termSlang termsinformal
The most common pop-culture categories are: entertainment (such as movies, music, television and video games), sports, news (as in people/places in the news), politics, fashion, technology, and slang.
Slang is often taken from social media as a sign of social awareness and shared knowledge of popular culture.

Counterculture

counterculturalcounter-culturecounter-cultural
As a result, it comes under heavy criticism from various non-mainstream sources (most notably from religious groups and from countercultural groups) which deem it superficial, consumerist, sensationalist, or corrupt.

Subculture

subculturessubculturalsub-culture
As a result, it comes under heavy criticism from various non-mainstream sources (most notably from religious groups and from countercultural groups) which deem it superficial, consumerist, sensationalist, or corrupt.

Postmodernism

postmodernpost-modernpostmodernist
A postmodernist approach to popular culture would "no longer recognize the distinction between high and popular culture."
These developments—re-evaluation of the entire Western value system (love, marriage, popular culture, shift from industrial to service economy) that took place since the 1950s and 1960s, with a peak in the Social Revolution of 1968—are described with the term "postmodernity", as opposed to Postmodernism, a term referring to an opinion or movement.

Charles Dickens

DickensDickensianDickens, Charles
However, many works straddle the boundaries, e.g., William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens.
The likes of Ebenezer Scrooge, Tiny Tim, Jacob Marley and Bob Cratchit (A Christmas Carol), Oliver Twist, The Artful Dodger, Fagin and Bill Sikes (Oliver Twist), Pip, Miss Havisham and Abel Magwitch (Great Expectations), Sydney Carton, Charles Darnay and Madame Defarge (A Tale of Two Cities), David Copperfield, Uriah Heep and Mr Micawber (David Copperfield), Daniel Quilp (The Old Curiosity Shop), Samuel Pickwick and Sam Weller (The Pickwick Papers), and Wackford Squeers (Nicholas Nickleby) are so well known as to be part and parcel of popular culture, and in some cases have passed into ordinary language: a scrooge, for example, is a miser – or someone who dislikes Christmas festivity.

Pop art

Poppop-artpop artist
The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects.

Popular culture studies

popular culturepop culture criticismpopular
Popular culture studies is the study of popular culture from a critical theory perspective combining communication studies and cultural studies.

Culture industry

The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass DeceptionTheory of the Culture Industry
The term culture industry (Kulturindustrie) was coined by the critical theorists Theodor Adorno (1903–1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895–1973), and was presented as critical vocabulary in the chapter "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception", of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), wherein they proposed that popular culture is akin to a factory producing standardized cultural goods—films, radio programmes, magazines, etc.—that are used to manipulate mass society into passivity.

Ray B. Browne

Browne, Ray B.Dr. Ray BrowneProfessor Ray Browne
Ray Broadus Browne (January 15, 1922 – October 22, 2009), was an American educator, author, and founder of the academic study of popular culture in the United States.

Pop icon

popstarpop staricon
A pop icon is a celebrity, character or object whose exposure in popular culture is regarded as constituting a defining characteristic of a given society or era.

Low culture

lowbrowlow artlow-brow
"Low culture" is a derogatory term for forms of popular culture that have mass appeal.

The Journal of Popular Culture

Journal of Popular CultureAmerican Popular Culture AssociationJournal of Popular Culture: Comparative Studies in the World's Civilizations
The Journal of Popular Culture (JPC) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes academic essays on all aspects of popular or mass culture.

Brand

brand namemarquebrands
Corporate branding refers to the practice of promoting the brand name of a corporate entity, as opposed to specific products or services.
The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture.

Bread and circuses

panem et circensesBread and Gamesbread-and-circuses
The effect of these cultural products being distributed would be a mass culture designed to preserve the status quo of society.