Population genetics

population geneticistevolutionary geneticspopulation geneticpopulationpopulation geneticistsgenetic population structurepopulationsEvolutionary geneticistgenetic populationsgenetically
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.wikipedia
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Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Genetics has given rise to a number of subfields, including molecular genetics, epigenetics and population genetics.

Modern synthesis (20th century)

modern synthesismodern evolutionary synthesisevolutionary synthesis
Population genetics was a vital ingredient in the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis.
The 19th century ideas of natural selection and Mendelian genetics were put together with population genetics, early in the twentieth century.

Sewall Wright

WrightSewall G. WrightS. Wright
Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics. The American biologist Sewall Wright, who had a background in animal breeding experiments, focused on combinations of interacting genes, and the effects of inbreeding on small, relatively isolated populations that exhibited genetic drift.
He was a founder of population genetics alongside Ronald Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane, which was a major step in the development of the modern synthesis combining genetics with evolution.

Quantitative genetics

polygenicquantitative geneticquantitative geneticist
Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).

Ronald Fisher

R.A. FisherR. A. FisherFisher
Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics.
He is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics.

Biostatistics

biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician
Population genetics began as a reconciliation of Mendelian inheritance and biostatistics models.
The three leading figures in the establishment of population genetics and this synthesis all relied on statistics and developed its use in biology.

Population genomics

human populations
This makes it appropriate for comparison to population genomics data.
Population genomics is a neologism that is associated with population genetics.

Epistasis

epistaticgene interactiongenetic interactions
What sets population genetics apart today from newer, more phenotypic approaches to modelling evolution, such as evolutionary game theory and adaptive dynamics, is its emphasis on genetic phenomena as dominance, epistasis, and the degree to which genetic recombination breaks up linkage disequilibrium.
Some introductory courses still teach population genetics this way.

Population

populationspopulacepopulated
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together.

George R. Price

George PriceGeorge Robert PricePrice, George R.
The American George R. Price worked with both Hamilton and Maynard Smith.
George Robert Price (October 6, 1922 – January 6, 1975) was an American population geneticist.

Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian geneticsMendelianMendel's laws
Population genetics began as a reconciliation of Mendelian inheritance and biostatistics models.
Ronald Fisher combined these ideas with the theory of natural selection in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, putting evolution onto a mathematical footing and forming the basis for population genetics within the modern evolutionary synthesis.

Animal breeding

breedinganimalbreeders
The American biologist Sewall Wright, who had a background in animal breeding experiments, focused on combinations of interacting genes, and the effects of inbreeding on small, relatively isolated populations that exhibited genetic drift.
The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics, and recently molecular genetics and is based on the pioneering work of Sewall Wright, Jay Lush, and Charles Henderson.

Richard Lewontin

Richard C. LewontinLewontinLewontin, Richard
American Richard Lewontin and Japanese Motoo Kimura were heavily influenced by Wright and Haldane.
A leader in developing the mathematical basis of population genetics and evolutionary theory, he pioneered the application of techniques from molecular biology, such as gel electrophoresis, to questions of genetic variation and evolution.

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection

In a series of papers starting in 1918 and culminating in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher showed that the continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes, and that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in evolution.
First published in 1930 by The Clarendon Press, it is one of the most important books of the modern synthesis, and helped define population genetics.

J. B. S. Haldane

J.B.S. HaldaneHaldaneJohn Burdon Sanderson Haldane
Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics.
Subsequent works established a unification of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution by natural selection whilst laying the groundwork for modern evolutionary synthesis and thus helped to create population genetics.

Motoo Kimura

KimuraKimura, Motoo
American Richard Lewontin and Japanese Motoo Kimura were heavily influenced by Wright and Haldane.
He became one of the most influential theoretical population geneticists.

Genetic diversity

variationgenetically diversegenetic variation
Theodosius Dobzhansky, a postdoctoral worker in T. H. Morgan's lab, had been influenced by the work on genetic diversity by Russian geneticists such as Sergei Chetverikov.
The academic field of population genetics includes several hypotheses and theories regarding genetic diversity.

Genetics and the Origin of Species

He helped to bridge the divide between the foundations of microevolution developed by the population geneticists and the patterns of macroevolution observed by field biologists, with his 1937 book Genetics and the Origin of Species.
The book popularized the work of population genetics to other biologists, and influenced their appreciation for the genetic basis of evolution.

Microevolution

micro levelmicro-evolutionmicroevolutionary
He helped to bridge the divide between the foundations of microevolution developed by the population geneticists and the patterns of macroevolution observed by field biologists, with his 1937 book Genetics and the Origin of Species.
Population genetics is the branch of biology that provides the mathematical structure for the study of the process of microevolution.

Sergei Chetverikov

ChetverikovSergei Sergeevich Chetverikov
Theodosius Dobzhansky, a postdoctoral worker in T. H. Morgan's lab, had been influenced by the work on genetic diversity by Russian geneticists such as Sergei Chetverikov.
His research showed how early genetic theories applied to natural populations, and has therefore contributed towards the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory.

W. D. Hamilton

W.D. HamiltonWilliam D. HamiltonWilliam Donald Hamilton
John Maynard Smith was Haldane's pupil, whilst W.D. Hamilton was heavily influenced by the writings of Fisher.
In 1946, he discovered E. B. Ford's New Naturalist book Butterflies, which introduced him to the principles of evolution by natural selection, genetics, and population genetics.

Gene flow

genetic exchangegeneflowmigration
The main processes influencing allele frequencies are natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow and recurrent mutation.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.

Selection coefficient

Haldane also applied statistical analysis to real-world examples of natural selection, such as peppered moth evolution and industrial melanism, and showed that selection coefficients could be larger than Fisher assumed, leading to more rapid adaptive evolution as a camouflage strategy following increased pollution.
In population genetics, a selection coefficient, usually denoted by the letter s, is a measure of differences in relative fitness.

Fixation (population genetics)

fixationfixedbecome fixed
The origin-fixation view of population genetics generalizes this approach beyond strictly neutral mutations, and sees the rate at which a particular change happens as the product of the mutation rate and the fixation probability.
In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.

Evolutionary invasion analysis

adaptive dynamics
What sets population genetics apart today from newer, more phenotypic approaches to modelling evolution, such as evolutionary game theory and adaptive dynamics, is its emphasis on genetic phenomena as dominance, epistasis, and the degree to which genetic recombination breaks up linkage disequilibrium.
The best known are population genetics which models inheritance at the expense of ecological detail, quantitative genetics which incorporates quantitative traits influenced by genes at many loci, and evolutionary game theory which ignores genetic detail but incorporates a high degree of ecological realism, in particular that the success of any given strategy depends on the frequency at which strategies are played in the population, a concept known as frequency dependence.