23 Related Articles
fertility ratefertility ratesreplacement rate
1. Fertility rates must level off to the replacement rate (the net reproduction rate should be 1). 2. With respect to lowest-low fertility countries (for example in Europe), a negative population momentum implies that these countries may experience population decline even if they try to increase their rate of fertility to the replacement rate of 2.1.
This phenomenon carries forward for several generations and is called population momentum, population inertia or population-lag effect.
They include models of mortality (including the life table, Gompertz models, hazards models, Cox proportional hazards models, multiple decrement life tables, Brass relational logits), fertility (Hernes model, Coale-Trussell models, parity progression ratios), marriage (Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model), disability (Sullivan's method, multistate life tables), population projections (Lee-Carter model, the Leslie Matrix), and population momentum (Keyfitz).
demographic transition modelfertility transitiondemographic expansion
Population momentum is a consequence of the demographic transition.
net reproductive indexnet reproductive ratereproduction rate
1. Fertility rates must level off to the replacement rate (the net reproduction rate should be 1).
mortalitymortality ratesdeath rates
Population momentum impacts the immediate birth and death rates in the population that determine the natural rate of growth.
developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
1. With respect to high-fertility countries (for example in the developing world), a positive population momentum, meaning that the population is increasing, states that these countries will continue to grow despite large and rapid declines in fertility.
2. With respect to lowest-low fertility countries (for example in Europe), a negative population momentum implies that these countries may experience population decline even if they try to increase their rate of fertility to the replacement rate of 2.1.
Eastern EuropeanEasternEast European
For example, some Eastern European countries show a population shrinkage even if their birth rates recovered to replacement level.
crude birth ratebirth ratesbirthrate
To calculate population momentum for population A, a theoretical population is constructed in which the birth rate for population A immediately becomes replacement level.
overpopulationexpanding human populationoverpopulated
population concern organizations
Nonetheless most European countries still have growing populations due to immigration, population momentum and increases in life expectancy.
sub-replacement fertility ratereplacement levelreplacement rate
Nonetheless most of these countries still have growing populations due to immigration, population momentum and increase of the life expectancy.
median ageyouth bulgeage distribution
Population momentum, when a population's birth rates continue to increase even after replacement level has been reached, can even be predicted if a population has a low mortality rate since the population will continue to grow.
There is a large population momentum, with 3.2 percent growth rate leading to the projected population.
Although the total fertility rate in Madagascar is experiencing a decrease, the large number of women of child-bearing age has ensured that population momentum will cause the total number of births to increase.
Non-Hispanic WhiteNon-Hispanic White or Caucasianwhites
This was a growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum.
population growth ratefamily planningpopulation-growth rate
Discounting immigration and population momentum effects, a nation that crosses below the replacement rate is on the path to population stabilisation and, eventually, population reduction.
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densitypopulation densitiesdensely populated