Porfirio Díaz

Porfirio DiazDíazDiazPorfirianPorfiriatoPorfirioPresident Díaz1876Crier of IcamoleDon Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from February 17, 1877 to December 1, 1880 and from December 1, 1884 to May 25, 1911.wikipedia
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Porfiriato

PorfirianDictatorshipPorfiiran era
The entire period 1876–1911 is often referred to as the Porfiriato.
The Porfiriato is a term given to the period that General Porfirio Díaz ruled Mexico as president in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, coined by Mexican historian Daniel Cosío Villegas.

Mexican Revolution

RevolutionrevolutionaryMexican Civil War
After Díaz declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office in 1910, his electoral opponent, wealthy estate owner Francisco I. Madero, issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí calling for armed rebellion against Díaz, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution.
Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession.

Francisco I. Madero

Francisco MaderoMaderoMaderista
After Díaz declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office in 1910, his electoral opponent, wealthy estate owner Francisco I. Madero, issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí calling for armed rebellion against Díaz, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution.
Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada

Sebastian Lerdo de TejadalerdistasLerdo de Tejada
He subsequently revolted against presidents Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, on the principle of no re-election to the presidency.
Juárez's political rival liberal General Porfirio Díaz had attempted a coup against Juárez, but his Plan de la Noria failed and Díaz was eliminated as a political foe during Lerdo's 1872-76 term, giving Lerdo considerable leeway to pursue his program without political interference.

Bernardo Reyes

Bernardo Reyes Ogazón
His failure to institutionalize presidential succession, since he was by then 80 years old, triggered a political crisis between the Científicos and the followers of General Bernardo Reyes, allied with the military and with peripheral regions of Mexico.
Like his political patron, General and then President Porfirio Díaz, Reyes was a military man who became an able administrator.

Científico

CientificoscientíficosCientifico
Díaz and his allies comprised a group of technocrats known as Científicos, "scientists".
The Científicos (Spanish: "scientists" or "those scientifically oriented") were a circle of technocratic advisors to President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz.

Manuel González Flores

Manuel GonzálezGeneral Manuel Gonzalez
In 1880, he stepped down and his political ally Manuel González was elected president, serving from 1880 to 1884.
In the French intervention in Mexico, González fought for the Mexican Republic under the command of General Porfirio Díaz.

Treaty of Ciudad Juárez

forced to resignpeace treaty of Ciudad Juarez
After the Federal Army suffered a number of military defeats against the forces supporting Madero, Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911 and went into exile in Paris, where he died four years later.
The Treaty of Ciudad Juárez was a peace treaty signed between the President of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz, and the revolutionary Francisco Madero on May 21, 1911.

Plan of San Luis Potosí

Plan de San Luis PotosíPlan de San Luishis manifesto
After Díaz declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office in 1910, his electoral opponent, wealthy estate owner Francisco I. Madero, issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí calling for armed rebellion against Díaz, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution.
It called for nullifying the 1910 election of Porfirio Díaz, claimed a provisional presidency for Madero, and called for Mexicans to revolt on November 20, 1910.

Federal Army

Mexican Federal ArmyHuerta's Federal Armyhuertistas
After the Federal Army suffered a number of military defeats against the forces supporting Madero, Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911 and went into exile in Paris, where he died four years later.
The Federal Army, also known as the Federales in popular culture, was the military of the Mexican state during the Porfiriato, the long rule of President Porfirio Díaz, and until 1914.

President of Mexico

PresidentMexican PresidentPresident of the Republic
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from February 17, 1877 to December 1, 1880 and from December 1, 1884 to May 25, 1911.
After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until 1929, when all the revolutionary leaders united in one political party: the National Revolutionary Party, which later changed its name to the Party of the Mexican Revolution, and is now the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional).

Mexico City

Federal DistrictMexico City, MexicoDistrito Federal
Also in 1866, Marshal Bazaine, commander of the Imperial forces, offered to surrender Mexico City to Díaz if he withdrew support of Juárez.
Events such as the Mexican–American War, the French Intervention and the Reform War left the city relatively untouched and it continued to grow, especially during the rule of President Porfirio Díaz.

Oaxaca City

OaxacaOaxaca, OaxacaOaxaca de Juárez
Porfirio Díaz was the sixth of seven children, baptized on 15 September 1830, in Oaxaca, Mexico, but his actual date of birth is unknown.
The altar features a statue of Our Lady of the Assumption (Nuestra Señora de al Asunción) which was made in Italy during the Porfirio era, who is represented by a bronze sculpture brought from Europe and made by Tadoini.

Plan of Tuxtepec

Plan de TuxtepecTuxtepecMexican coup
Diaz launched his rebellion in Ojitlan, Oaxaca, on 10 January 1876 under the Plan of Tuxtepec, which initially failed.
In Mexican history, the Plan of Tuxtepec was a plan drafted by Porfirio Díaz in 1876 and proclaimed on 10 January 1876 in the Villa de Ojitlán municipality of San Lucas Ojitlán, Tuxtepec district, Oaxaca.

Juan N. Méndez

Juan Nepomuceno MéndezJuan N. Mendez
Díaz did not take formal control of the presidency until the beginning of 1877, putting General Juan N. Méndez as provisional president, followed by new presidential elections in 1877 that gave Díaz the presidency.
Juan Nepomuceno Méndez (2 July 1820 – 29 November 1894) was a Mexican general, a Liberal politician and confidante of Porfirio Díaz, and interim president of the Republic for a few months during the Porfiriato.

Battle of Miahuatlán

Miahuatlán
That same year, he earned victories in Nochixtlán, Miahuatlán, and La Carbonera, and once again captured Oaxaca.
It was fought between elements of the Mexican republican army under General Porfirio Díaz and troops of the Second Mexican Empire during the Second French intervention in Mexico.

Battle of La Carbonera

La Carbonera
That same year, he earned victories in Nochixtlán, Miahuatlán, and La Carbonera, and once again captured Oaxaca.
Having triumphed over the Imperial forces in the Battle of Miahuatlán, the Republican General Porfirio Díaz besieged the city of Oaxaca, defended by the conservative General Carlos Oronoz.

Carmen Romero Rubio

Carmen Romero de Díaz
He also devoted time to his personal life, highlighted by his marriage to Carmen Romero Rubio, the devout 17-year-old daughter of Manuel Romero Rubio, a supporter of Lerdo.
Fabiana Sebastiana Maria Carmen Romero Rubio y Castelló (20 January 1864 – 25 June 1944), second wife of Porfirio Díaz, President of Mexico.

Benito Juárez

Benito JuarezJuarezJuárez
He subsequently revolted against presidents Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, on the principle of no re-election to the presidency.
The period following the expulsion of the French and up to the revolt of Porfirio Díaz in 1876 are now commonly known in Mexico as the "Restored Republic".

Rurales

Guardia RuralMexican RuralesRural federal forces
Diaz expanded the crack police force, the Rurales, who were under control of the president.
The historic Guardia Rural ('Rural Guard') was a mounted rural police force, founded by President Benito Juárez in 1861 and expanded by President Porfirio Díaz (r.

José Yves Limantour

José Ives LimantourJosé Yves Limantour y Márquez
One of Romero Rubio's protégés was José Yves Limantour, who became the main financial adviser to the regime, stabilizing the country's public finances.
José Yves Limantour y Márquez (26 December 1854 – 26 August 1935) was a Mexican financier who served as Secretary of the Finance of Mexico from 1893 until the fall of the Porfirio Díaz regime in 1911.

Second French intervention in Mexico

French intervention in MexicoFrench InterventionMexico
A veteran of the War of the Reform (1858–60) and the French intervention in Mexico (1862–67), Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian.
The French continued with victories in 1865, with Bazaine capturing Oaxaca on 9 February (defeating the city's defenders under General Porfirio Díaz).

Manuel Romero Rubio

He also devoted time to his personal life, highlighted by his marriage to Carmen Romero Rubio, the devout 17-year-old daughter of Manuel Romero Rubio, a supporter of Lerdo.
Manuel Romero Rubio (7 March 1828 – 3 October 1895) was a Mexican lawyer and politician who formed part of the governments of Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada and Porfirio Díaz.

James Creelman

Creelman Interview
On 17 February 1908, in an interview with the U.S. journalist James Creelman of Pearson's Magazine, Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would retire and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency.
James Crelman (November 12, 1859 – February 12, 1915) was a Canadian-American writer famous for securing a 1908 interview for Pearson's Magazine with Mexican president Porfirio Díaz, in which the strongman said that he would not run for the presidency in the 1910 elections.

El Boleo

El Boleo mineBoleo mineCompagnie du Boléo
The desolate region of Baja California Sur benefited from the establishment of an economic zone with the founding of the town of Santa Rosalía and the commercial development of the El Boleo copper mine.
El Boleo was first operated, on a large commercial scale, in 1885 by the French company Compagnie du Boleo which obtained control of the property and began mining, after receiving an extensive concession and 70-year tax exemption granted by Mexican president Porfirio Diaz.