Portal vein

hepatic portal veinportalhepatic portalAccessory portal veinLeft branch of portal veinportal systemportal veinsportal venous gasportal venulesportal vessel
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.wikipedia
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Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
The liver is connected to two large blood vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal vein and common hepatic duct.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic development
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
The superior mesenteric artery passes down in front of the left half across the uncinate process; the superior mesenteric vein runs upward on the right side of the artery and, behind the neck, joins with the lienal vein to form the portal vein.

Hepatic portal system

hepatic portal circulationportal systemportal sclerosis
It is a major component of the hepatic portal system, one of only two portal venous systems in the body – with the hypophyseal portal system being the other.
In human anatomy, the hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries.

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
The portal vein is not a true vein, because it conducts blood to capillary beds in the liver and not directly to the heart.
Examples of such systems include the hepatic portal vein and hypophyseal portal system.

Hepatic artery proper

proper hepatic arteryHepatic arteryright hepatic artery
Approximately 75% of total liver blood flow is through the portal vein, with the remainder coming from the hepatic artery proper.
The hepatic artery proper arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad.

Portal hypertension

high blood pressure in the portal systemincreased pressures in the portal vein circulationliver condition
This condition, called portal hypertension, is a major complication of cirrhosis.
Portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the hepatic portal system – made up of the portal vein and its branches, that drain from most of the intestine to the liver.

Superior mesenteric vein

veinmesenteric veinsuperior
The portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, left and right gastric veins, and cystic veins.
At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the superior mesenteric vein combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein.

Inferior mesenteric vein

inferior mesentericmesenteric veins
The portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, left and right gastric veins, and cystic veins.
It usually terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein with the superior mesenteric vein (SMV).

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
An important example of such a condition is elevated blood pressure in the portal vein.

Splenic vein

lienal veinveinsplenic
The portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, left and right gastric veins, and cystic veins.
It collects branches from the stomach and pancreas, and most notably from the large intestine (also drained by the superior mesenteric vein) via the inferior mesenteric vein, which drains in the splenic vein shortly before the origin of the hepatic portal vein.

Lobules of liver

portal triadhepatic lobuleliver lobule
Each portal venule courses alongside a hepatic arteriole and the two vessels form the vascular components of the portal triad.

Right gastric vein

The portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, left and right gastric veins, and cystic veins.
The right gastric vein (pyloric vein) drains blood from the lesser curvature of the stomach into the hepatic portal vein.

Paraumbilical vein

paraumbilical veinsPara-umbilical veins
These include the paraumbilical veins as well as veins of the lesser omentum, falciform ligament, and those draining the gallbladder wall.
In the course of the round ligament of liver, small veins (paraumbilical) are found which establish an anastomosis between the veins of the anterior abdominal wall and the hepatic portal, hypogastric, and iliac veins.

Left gastric vein

left
The portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, left and right gastric veins, and cystic veins.
It then turns backward and passes from left to right behind the omental bursa and drains into the portal vein.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
In carrying venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, the portal vein accomplishes two tasks: it supplies the liver with metabolic substrates and it ensures that substances ingested are first processed by the liver before reaching the systemic circulation.
Portal veins are a slight exception to this.

Portal venous system

portal circulationportal systemportal blood vessels
It is a major component of the hepatic portal system, one of only two portal venous systems in the body – with the hypophyseal portal system being the other.
For this reason, portal vein most commonly refers to the hepatic portal vein.

Cystic vein

The portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, left and right gastric veins, and cystic veins.
When present the cystic vein drains the blood from the gall-bladder, and, accompanying the cystic duct, usually ends in the right branch of the portal vein.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
This condition, called portal hypertension, is a major complication of cirrhosis.
An increased portal vein pulsatility is an indicator of cirrhosis, but may also be caused by an increased right atrial pressure.

Hepatic veins

hepatic veinhepatic
The blood leaves the liver to the heart in the hepatic veins.
They are one of two sets of veins connected to the liver, the others are the portal veins.

Esophageal varices

oesophageal varicesvaricesdilated blood vessels in the esophagus
Clinical signs of portal hypertension include those of chronic liver disease: ascites, esophageal varices, spider nevi, caput medusae, and palmar erythema.
The lower one third of the esophagus is drained into the superficial veins lining the esophageal mucosa, which drain into the left gastric vein, which in turn drains directly into the portal vein.

Pylephlebitis

Pylephlebitis is infection of the portal vein, usually arising from an infectious intra-abdominal process such as diverticulosis.
Pylephlebitis is an uncommon thrombophlebitis of the portal vein or any of its branches (i.e. a portal vein thrombosis) that is caused by infection.

Lesser omentum

lesser
These include the paraumbilical veins as well as veins of the lesser omentum, falciform ligament, and those draining the gallbladder wall.
Between the two layers of the lesser omentum, close to the right free margin, are the hepatic artery proper, the common bile duct, the portal vein, lymphatics, and the hepatic plexus of nerves—all these structures being enclosed in a fibrous capsule (Glisson's capsule).

Liver sinusoid

sinusoidal endothelial cellssinusoidshepatic sinusoid
These vessels ultimately empty into the hepatic sinusoids to supply blood to the liver.
A liver sinusoid is a type of capillary known as a sinusoidal capillary, discontinuous capillary or sinusoid, that is similar to a fenestrated capillary, having discontinuous endothelium that serves as a location for mixing of the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.

Ascites

ascitic fluidBulging flanksChylous ascites
Clinical signs of portal hypertension include those of chronic liver disease: ascites, esophageal varices, spider nevi, caput medusae, and palmar erythema.
Roughly, transudates are a result of increased pressure in the hepatic portal vein (>8 mmHg, usually around 20 mmHg ), e.g. due to cirrhosis, while exudates are actively secreted fluid due to inflammation or malignancy.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.