Portugal

Chalcolithic Dolmen Anta da Arca
Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley.
Megalithic Monuments of Alcalar, built in the 3rd millennium BCE.
Roman Temple of Évora, in the Alentejo, is one of the best preserved Roman-built structures in the country.
Centum Cellas, in the Beira region, is a Roman villa rustica from the 1st century CE.
Map of the Kingdom of the Suebi in the 5th and 6th centuries
Visigothic kingdom in Iberia c.560
Illustrated depiction of the First Council of Braga of 561 CE
Suebi King Miro and St. Martin of Braga; c. 1145
The Caliphate of Cordoba in the early 10th century
Statue of Ibn Qasi outside the Castle of Mértola, in the Alentejo
A statue of Count Vímara Peres, first Count of Portugal
Alfonso VI of León investing Henry, Count of Portugal, in 1093
Afonso Henriques was the last Count of Portugal and the first King of Portugal after winning the Battle of Ourique in 1139.
Henry the Navigator
Vasco da Gama
Areas across the world that were, at one point in their history, part of the Portuguese Empire
The 1st Marquis of Pombal effectively ruled Portugal as an enlightened despot during the reign of King Joseph I.
The frontispiece of the 1826 Portuguese Constitution featuring King-Emperor Pedro IV and his daughter Queen Maria II
Left to right: President Bernardino Machado, President Teófilo Braga, President António José de Almeida, and Prime Minister Afonso Costa; 1911
António de Oliveira Salazar ruled Portugal from 1932 to 1968, within the Estado Novo regime.
Portuguese Africa before independence in 1975
Mário Soares became Portugal's first democratically elected Prime-Minister in 1976.
The Treaty of Lisbon was signed in 2007, when Portugal held the presidency for the European Council.
Köppen climate classification map of continental Portugal
The Marinha Beach in Lagoa, Algarve is considered by the Michelin Guide as one of the 10 most beautiful beaches in Europe and as one of the 100 most beautiful beaches in the world.
Peneda-Gerês National Park is the only nationally designated park in Portugal, owing to the rarity and significance of its environment.
Chameleo from Algarve
Exclusive economic zone of Portugal
Belém Palace serves as the official residence and workplace of the President of the Republic.
The Praça do Comércio houses multiple ministries of the Government of Portugal.
The Assembly of the Republic is housed in São Bento Palace in Lisbon.
Necessidades Palace houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Current Secretary-General of the United Nations and former Prime Minister António Guterres
Portuguese Army - Leopard 2A6
Portuguese Navy - MEKO-200 PN
Portuguese Air Force - F-16 Fighting Falcons
Lisbon's Campus of Justice
A cavalryman of the National Republican Guard's honour guard
Debt as a percentage of the economy of Portugal, compared to eurozone average
A proportional representation of Portugal's exports,
Avenida da Liberdade leading to Marquis of Pombal Square, Lisbon, is one of the most expensive shopping streets in Europe.
November 2011 protests against austerity measures outside the Assembly of the Republic
Portugal has the thirteenth-largest gold reserve in the world.
The Alentejo is known as the "bread basket of Portugal", being the country's leading region in wheat and cork production.
"Cupa", Roman tombstones into the shape of wooden wine barrels, were used to mark the grave of wine makers in the 3rd century in Alentejo, a region to this day renowned for its wines.
A Portucel Soporcel pulp and paper factory in Setúbal
A view of Nazaré, in Estremadura
Rooster of Barcelos, an iconic Portuguese souvenir
The Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa is Portugal's oldest (1878) astronomical observatory.
Vasco da Gama Bridge is the longest bridge in the EU.
Portugal electricity production 1980-2019
Top origins for foreign-born naturalized citizens of Portugal
A sign in Mirandese in Miranda do Douro, Trás-os-Montes
University of Evora, Portugal's second oldest university.
King Diniz statue at the University of Coimbra: the first university in Portugal (now the University of Coimbra), then called the Estudo Geral (General Study), was founded in Lisbon with his signing of the document Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis in Leiria on 3 March 1290.
The Medical Department of NOVA University Lisbon
Pasteis de Nata in Lisbon
Fado, depicted in this famous painting (c. 1910) by José Malhoa, is Portugal's traditional music.
Amália Rodrigues, known as the Queen of Fado, performing in 1969
Domingos Sequeira was one of the most prolific neoclassical painters. (Adoration of the Magi; 1828)
Cristiano Ronaldo is consistently ranked as one of the best football players in the world and considered to be one of the greatest players of all time.
Miguel Oliveira, Portuguese professional motorcycle racer.

Country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira.

- Portugal

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Southern Europe

Southern region of Europe.

The geographical and ethno-cultural borders of Southern Europe are the Pyrenees, the Alps, and the Balkan Mountains to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
European climate. Note the high diversity of Köppen-Geiger climates in the southern regions.
Distribution map of Olea europaea s.l. (Olive tree).
Roman Empire. In yellow the south-west of Europe, and in violet the south-east.
Eastern Roman Empire mainly focused on southern Europe.
The areas of the world that were at one time part of the Portuguese and Spanish empires
Ottomans controlled most of the Mediterranean Sea for centuries.
Map representing the geography of Europe, with the mountain ranges separating Southern Europe.
Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
Satellite image of the Italian Peninsula.
Satellite image of the Balkan Peninsula.
Beech forest in the Aurunci Mountains, Italy
Stone pines in Doñana National Park, Spain
Oak savanna of Alentejo, Portugal (Q. suber and Q. rotundifolia)
Aleppo pine forest, Croatia
Temperate pine forests of Monte Cimone, Italy
Dry olive groove, Crete

Definitions of Southern Europe includes some or all of these countries and regions: Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Turkey (East Thrace), Gibraltar, Greece, Italy, Kosovo, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovenia, Southern France, Spain, and Vatican City (the Holy See).

Spain

Country in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea.

The Lady of Elche, possibly depicting Tanit, from Carthaginian Iberia, 4th century BCE
Celtic castro in Galicia
The Roman Theatre in Mérida
Reccared I and bishops during Council III of Toledo, 589. Codex Vigilanus, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial
Votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar
The interior of the Great Mosque of Córdoba
In 1030, the Kingdom of Navarre controlled the Count of Aragon and the Count of Castile, who later became major kingdoms of its time.
Miniature from the 13th-century Libro de los Juegos depicting a Jew (left) and a Moor (right) playing chess.
Late 16th-century Seville, the harbor enjoying the exclusive right to trade with the New World.
Lienzo de Tlaxcala codex showing the 1519 meeting of conquistador Hernán Cortés and his counsellor La Malinche with Aztec emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan.
Main Trade Routes of the Spanish Empire
The family of Philip V. During the Enlightenment in Spain a new royal family reigned, the House of Bourbon.
Ferdinand VII swears on the 1812 Constitution before the Cortes in 1820
Puerta del Sol, Madrid, after the Spanish Revolution of 1868
Demonstration in Barcelona during the Tragic Week events
Republican volunteers at Teruel, 1936
Felipe González signing the treaty of accession to the European Economic Community on 12 June 1985
The 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona
Demonstration against the crisis and high youth unemployment in Madrid, 15 May 2011
Topographic map of Spain
Satellite image of Mallorca island
Teide, still active volcano in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands is the greatest peak in Spain
The coast north of the Cantabrian Mountains features an humid oceanic climate
The southeasternmost end of the Iberian peninsula features an arid climate.
The Iberian wolf in Castile and Leon. The region has 25% of the land covered by Natura 2000 protected natural spaces.
The Congress of Deputies
Palau Reial de Pedralbes in Barcelona, headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean.
Aerial view showing the Rock of Gibraltar, the isthmus of Gibraltar and the Bay of Gibraltar.
Almirante Juan de Borbón (F-102), a Spanish navy's F100 class frigate incorporating the Aegis Combat System.
WorldPride Madrid 2017. A summit on LGBTI human rights took place at the same time as World Pride celebrations.
Spain is a member of the Schengen Area, the Eurozone and the European Single Market.
A proportional representation of Spain exports, 2019
Renault factory in Valladolid
Olive orchards in Andalusia.
Benidorm, one of Europe's largest coastal tourist destinations
Solar power plant Andasol was the first parabolic trough power plant in Europe. Because of the high altitude (1,100 m) and the semi-arid climate, the site has exceptionally high annual direct insolation of 2,200 kWh/m2 per year.
The Port of Valencia, one of the busiest in the Golden Banana
GranTeCan reflecting telescope located at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Population pyramid of Spain from 1950 to 2014
Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008
Celebration of the Romani Day on 24 May 2018 in Madrid
Distribution of the foreign population in Spain in 2005 by percentage
Languages of Spain
University of Seville rectorate building
The interior of the Hermitage of El Rocío during a Catholic ceremony.
Manuscript of the 13th-century Grande e general estoria.
Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez
The Comb of the Wind of Eduardo Chillida in San Sebastián
Pedro Almodóvar and Penélope Cruz in Oviedo
Hanging Houses of Cuenca
Flamenco is an Andalusian artistic form that evolved from Seguidilla.
Spain or La Roja lineup in 2015. Football is the most popular and profitable sport in the country.
Encierro, San Fermín, in Pamplona

The country's mainland is bordered to the south by Gibraltar; to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Al-Andalus

The Muslim-ruled area of the Iberian Peninsula.

The Age of the Caliphs
The province of al-Andalus in 750
Interior of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba formerly the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The original mosque (742), since much enlarged, was built on the site of the Visigothic Christian 'Saint Vincent Basilica' (600).
Statue of Abd al Rahman in Almuñécar
Mosaic covered mihrab inside the Cordoba mosque
The Caliphate of Cordoba in 910
The taifas (green) in 1031 AD
Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire
Expansion of the Almohad state in the 12th century
The Giralda of Seville originally built by the Almohads is a prime example of Andalusi architecture.
A silk textile fragment from the last Muslim dynasty of Al-Andalus, the Nasrid Dynasty (1232–1492), with the epigraphic inscription "glory to our lord the Sultan".
Manuel Gómez-Moreno González's 19th-century depiction of Muhammad XII's family in the Alhambra moments after the fall of Granada.
The Court of the Lions as shown from the Alhambra, the palace of Nasrid Granada
Male clothing of al-Andalus in the 15th century, during the Emirate of Granada
A Christian and a Muslim playing chess in 13th-century al-Andalus
Image of a Jewish cantor reading the Passover story in al-Andalus, from a 14th-century Spanish Haggadah
Linguistic map of southwestern Europe
A section of the hypostyle hall in the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, begun in 785
The Pyxis of al-Mughira, a carved ivory casket made at Madinat al-Zahra, dated to 968
The Alhambra, begun by the first Nasrid emir Ibn al-Ahmar in the 13th century
The cultivation of sugarcane had reached the south of the Iberian Peninsula by the 16th century CE due to Arab conquest and administration of the region.
Diffusion of bananas from India to the Iberian peninsula during Islamic rule.
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. Detail from Triunfo de Santo Tomás by Andrea Bonaiuto, 14th century
Jewish Street Sign in Toledo, Spain

The term is used by modern historians for the former Islamic states based in modern Portugal and Spain.

Autonomous Regions of Portugal

The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal (Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores) and Madeira (Região Autónoma da Madeira).

Together with Continental Portugal (Portugal Continental), they form the whole of the Portuguese Republic.

Kingdom of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire
The Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1185–1248)
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1248–1385)
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1385–1481)
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1481–1495)
Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1495–1521)
Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1521–1578)
Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1580–1610)
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1610–1815)
Arms of the King of Portugal depicted in the Livro do Armeiro-Mor (c. 1509)

The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the western part of the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the modern Portuguese Republic.

Cabo da Roca

Monument announcing Cabo da Roca as the westernmost point of continental Europe
Granite boulders and sea cliffs along the coast, north of the cape
Invasive Carpobrotus edulis growing on the cape plateau
The shoreline at Cabo de Roca

Cabo da Roca or Cape Roca is a cape which forms the westernmost point of the Sintra Mountain Range, of mainland Portugal, of continental Europe, and of the Eurasian landmass.

Portuguese Empire

Areas of the world that were once part of the Portuguese Empire
The Conquest of Ceuta, in 1415, was led by Henry the Navigator and initiated the Portuguese Empire.
Areas of the world that were once part of the Portuguese Empire
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Map of Western Africa by Lázaro Luis (1563). The large castle in West Africa represents the São Jorge da Mina (Elmina Castle).
Portuguese possessions in Morocco (1415–1769)
The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas meridian divided the world between the crowns of Portugal and of Castile.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese Empire of the East, or Estado da Índia ("State of India"), with its capital in Goa, included possessions (as subjected areas with a certain degree of autonomy) in all the Asian sub-continents, East Africa, and Pacific.
Iberian 'mare clausum' in the Age of Discovery. Afonso de Albuquerque's strategy to encircle the Indian Ocean is shown.
The Portuguese visited the city of Nagasaki, Japan.
A depiction, from 1639, of the Macau Peninsula, during the golden age of colonization of Portuguese Macau
Portugal was the first European nation to establish trade routes with Japan and China. A significant portion of the crews on Portuguese ships on the Japan voyage were Indian Christians.
Portuguese Fort, one of the best-preserved forts in Bahrain
Persian portrait of a Portuguese nobleman (16th century)
Portuguese carracks unload cargo in Lisbon. Original engraving by Theodor de Bry, 1593, coloured at a later date
St. Francis Xavier requesting John III of Portugal for a missionary expedition in Asia
The Portuguese mapped and claimed Canada in 1499 and the 1500s.
A map from 1574 showing the 15 hereditary captaincy colonies of Brazil
The Luso-Hispanic (or Iberian) Empire in 1598, during the reign of Philip I and II, King of Portugal and Spain
The Recovery of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos, by Philip III of Portugal, from the Dutch Republic
The Portuguese victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes ended Dutch presence in Pernambuco.
Flag of Portugal (1667–1706). From the 15th–19th centuries the Portuguese flags all looked similar to this.
Portuguese India (1502–1961)
The Portuguese Cortes sought the disbandment of the United Kingdom.
Provinces of the Portuguese Empire in the Americas by 1817
The Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
Brazilian independence crippled the Portuguese Empire, both economically and politically, for a long time.
The façade of St. Paul's College in Macau, 1854
In the 19th century, Portugal launched campaigns to solidify Portuguese Africa.
In the 20th century, Portugal no longer called itself an empire, but a pluricontinental nation with overseas provinces.
António de Oliveira Salazar sought the preservation of a pluricontinental Portugal.
Vasco da Gama's departure to India in 1497
Portuguese discoveries and explorations: first arrival places and dates; main Portuguese spice trade routes (blue)
The carrack Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai exemplified the might and the force of the Portuguese Armada.
16th century Portuguese illustration from the Códice Casanatense, depicting a Portuguese nobleman with his retinue in India
Map of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; member states (blue), associate observers (green), and officially-interested countries & territories (gold)
{{color box|red}} Actual possessions {{color box|Olive}} Explorations {{color box|Orange}} Areas of influence and trade {{color box|Pink}} Claims of sovereignty {{color box|Green}} Trading posts {{color box|SkyBlue}} Main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence
The Se Cathedral in Goa, India, an example of Portuguese architecture and one of Asia's largest churches.
Portuguese remains an official language in Macau, alongside Chinese.

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was composed of the overseas colonies, factories, and the later overseas territories governed by Portugal.

Liberal Wars

Battle of Ferreira Bridge, 23 July 1832
A contemporaneous cartoon, showing the conflict between the Two Brothers, as children, supported and instigated, respectively, by the French King Louis Philippe I, representing the liberal side, and Czar Nicholas I of Russia, representing the anti-liberalist Holy Alliance
Battle of Praia Bay, 11 August 1829
Landing of the liberal forces in Pampelido, north of Porto, 8 July 1832
Battle of Cape St. Vincent, 5 July 1833
Monument at Mindelo, Vila do Conde, near Porto, to the landing of the liberal forces under the command of the British Admiral George Rose Sartorius on 8 July 1832.
Engraving of Remexido, from ca. 1836, the nickname of José Joaquim de Sousa Reis (Estômbar, 19 October 1796 – Faro, 2 August 1838), a civil servant and wealthy land tenant who became a notorious guerrilla leader of the Algarve in Portugal, defending the rights of king Miguel to the Portuguese throne and the antiliberal absolute monarchy in the Kingdom of Portugal.

The Liberal Wars (Guerras Liberais), also known as the Portuguese Civil War (Guerra Civil Portuguesa), the War of the Two Brothers (Guerra dos Dois Irmãos) or Miguelite War (Guerra Miguelista), was a war between liberal constitutionalists and conservative absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834.

Estado Novo (Portugal)

Map of the Portuguese Colonial Empire during the 20th century
King Carlos I of Portugal, circa 1907
Map of the Portuguese Colonial Empire during the 20th century
António de Oliveira Salazar, aged 50, in 1939
Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth) members working in the Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, circa 1938
António de Oliveira Salazar in 1940
President Truman signing the North Atlantic Treaty with Portuguese Ambassador Teotónio Pereira standing behind
Official portrait of President Américo Tomás by Henrique Medina (1959)
Marcelino da Mata, 1969. He became the most decorated Portuguese military officer in the history of the Portuguese Army.
Portuguese Armed Forces marching in Luanda, at the time the capital city of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola, during the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–74)
Rossio Square, Lisbon, in June 1968, showing a TAP airline commercial in the background at night
After Salazar's resignation due to illness in 1968, Marcelo Caetano became the leader of the country and its Estado Novo regime.
Eusébio da Silva Ferreira, a footballer born in Portuguese Mozambique, became the most famous Portuguese sports star during the Estado Novo.
Salazar observing Edgar Cardoso's Santa Clara Bridge maquette in Coimbra
King Pedro IV Square (Rossio), Lisbon, Portugal, April 1964
Portuguese military expenses during the Colonial War: OFMEU – National Budget for Overseas Military Expenses; *conto – popular expression for "1000 $ (PTE)"
Portuguese overseas territories in Africa during the Estado Novo regime: Angola and Mozambique were by far the two largest of those territories.
Bus in the city of Porto, 1972
Required elements of primary schools during the Estado Novo: a crucifix and portraits of Salazar and Américo Tomás
Example of a primary school built during the Estado Novo's Plano dos Centenários, with its distinctive Portuguese shield over the entrance
Children in Mocidade Portuguesa's uniform on the right, 1956
Instituto Superior Técnico, the largest and most prestigious school of engineering in Portugal, built in 1937
The University of Coimbra General Library main building – Edifício Novo (New Building, 1962) in the Alta Universitária, Coimbra
Coat of arms of Portuguese India
Coat of arms of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola
Memorial at the churchyard Cemitério dos Prazeres in Lisbon for one of the many actions against the regime of Salazar; Operation Vagô where leaflets were spread over several Portuguese cities from a TAP plane in 1961. The text says: "When the dictatorship is a reality, the revolution is a right."
Coat of arms of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Guinea
Coat of arms of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Mozambique
Coat of arms of Portuguese Timor

The Estado Novo (, lit. "New State") was the corporatist state installed in Portugal in 1933.

Moors

Exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages.

Castillian ambassadors attempting to convince Moorish Almohad king Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada to join their alliance (contemporary depiction from the Cantigas de Santa María)
Christian and Moor playing chess, from The Book of Games of Alfonso X, c. 1285
A figure of a Moor being trampled by a conquistador's horse at the National Museum of the Viceroyalty in Tepotzotlan.
Moros y Cristianos festival in Oliva.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan was founded by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 during the Islamic conquest, to provide a place of worship for recently converted or immigrating Muslims.
This is a large mural located on the ceiling of the Hall of Kings of the Alhambra which possibly depicts the first ten sultans of the Nasrid dynasty. It is a late-14th-century Gothic painting by a Christian Toledan artist.
Depiction of the Moors in Iberia, from The Cantigas de Santa Maria
Moorish army (right) of Almanzor during the Reconquista Battle of San Esteban de Gormaz, from Cantigas de Alfonso X el Sabio
The Moors request permission from James I of Aragón
Moorish and Christian Reconquista battle, taken from The Cantigas de Santa María
Court of the lions in the Alhambra, a Moorish palace built in the 14th century in Granada, Spain
Muslim musicians at the court of the Norman King Roger II of Sicily
Interior of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba
Coat of arms of Aragon with Moors' heads.
Arms of the wealthy Bristol merchant and shipper William II Canynges (d.1474), as depicted on his canopied tomb in St Mary Redcliffe Church, showing the couped heads of three Moors wreathed at the temples
Flag of the Emirate of Granada of the Arab Nasrid dynasty, the last Muslim kingdom of al-Andalus
Averroes, a Moorish polymath, was the founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, and influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. Painted by Andrea Bonaiuto in 14th century
Leo Africanus, born in Granada

The Iberian Peninsula then came to be known in Classical Arabic as al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of Septimania and modern-day Spain and Portugal.