Portuguese language

Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese.
Sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan, which has a large lusophone community due to return immigration of Japanese Brazilians.
Countries and regions where Portuguese has official status.
Multilingual signage in Chinese, Portuguese and English at the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge port building in Macau. Portuguese is a co-official language in Macau.
Ethnically diverse East Timor has Portuguese as one of its official languages.
Statue of the Portuguese Poet Luís de Camões at the entrence of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Portugal's Portuguese Dialects.
Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
In Brasília, the Senate committee room during a meeting of the Education, Culture and Sport Committee in 2014. The committee holds a public hearing to discuss the Orthographic Agreement for the Portuguese Language, signed in 1990 and implemented in January 2016. The new rules must apply for the eight countries that have Portuguese as an official language, including Brazil, Portugal, etc.
Linguistic map of Pre-Roman Iberia.
Library of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
A sign at Goa Central Library, in Panaji, India, listing three Portuguese-language newspapers
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese (Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbors between the year 1000 and 2000.
Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian and Occitano-Romance languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (areas colored green, gold or pink/purple represent languages deemed endangered by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian, Mirandese and the Fala as not only closely related but as dialect continuum, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal (Azores and Madeira–Canaries is not shown either).
An Old Portuguese Memento mori memorial sign in Malacca City.
Participating countries of the Lusophony Games.
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its in central schwa position.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Recife.
The main post office building of Macau
The Bissau-Guinean Presidential Palace, with its Portuguese colonial architecture, is a building that has a library, a small theater and was formerly the palace of the colonial governor of Portuguese-Guinea, seen from the PAIGC-building (formerly the seat of the local commercial association Associação Comercial, Industrial e Agrícola de Bissau), located at the Praça dos Heróis Nacionais square (formerly Praça do Império square), in downtown Bissau.
The Natural History Museum of Mozambique (Manueline) in Maputo.
The Fundação Oriente of Fontainhas, India. The Fundação Oriente, along with Instituto Camões, Instituto Menezes Bragança among others, are institutions dedicated to the worldwide promotion of the Portuguese language and culture.
The International Portuguese Language Institute headquarters, in Praia.

Western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.

- Portuguese language

500 related topics


Latin America

Presencia de América Latina (Presence of Latin America, 1964–65) is a 300. sqm mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of Concepción, Chile. It is also known as Latin America's Integration.
The four common subregions in Latin America
Mayan UNESCO World Heritage Site of Chichén Itzá
A view of UNESCO World Heritage Site of Machu Picchu, a pre-Columbian Inca site in Peru.
Surviving section of the Inca road system in Northwestern Argentina, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The road system linked the Andean empire
Cristóbal de Olid leads Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies against Indigenous warriors during the European colonization of the Americas.
Map of Brazil showing Indigenous men cutting brazilwood and Portuguese ships
Areas claimed by the Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
Potosí, the "cerro rico" that produced massive amounts of silver from a single site. The first image published in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León, 1553.
Sugar processing by skilled black slave laborers. Sugar cane must be processed immediately once cut in order to capture the most sugar juice, so engenhos needed to be constructed near fields.
Monument to Christopher Columbus, Buenos Aires before its 2013 removal and replaced by the statue of Juana Azurduy, a mestiza fighter for independence.
Development of Spanish American Independence
Ferdinand VII of Spain in whose name Spanish American juntas ruled during his exile 1808–1814; when restored to power in 1814, he reinstated autocratic rule, renewing independence movements
Constitution of 1812
Dom Pedro I, emperor of Brazil
Linguistic map of Latin America. Spanish in green, Portuguese in orange, and French in blue.
Argentine caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas
Mexican strongman Antonio López de Santa Anna
Emperor Pedro II of Brazil
American occupation of Mexico City
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, Édouard Manet 1868. The execution ended monarchic rule in Mexico, and Mexican liberals triumphed
A poster used in Japan to attract immigrants to Brazil. It reads: "Let’s go to South America with families."
The Zimmermann Telegram as it was sent from Washington to Ambassador Heinrich von Eckardt (German ambassador to Mexico)
U.S. President Roosevelt and Mexican President Manuel Avila Camacho, Monterrey, Mexico 1943. Roosevelt sought strong ties between the U.S. and Latin America in the World War II era
Agrarian reform poster, Guatemala 1952
Fidel Castro and his men in the Sierra Maestra, 2 December 1956
Cuba-Russia friendship poster, with Castro and Nikita Khrushchev
Che Guevara Cuban revolutionary poster
Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet and U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
The name Augusto Sandino, Nicaraguan nationalist hero for his struggle against the United States, was taken by leftist guerrillas as the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN).
Exhumation of corpses in the aftermath of the Guatemalan genocide
Pope Paul VI and Salvadoran cleric Oscar Romero (now St Oscar Romero)
Calls for justice in the wake of the Guatemalan genocide
ships, such as this one pictured here at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to pass through the Panama Canal. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.
Comandanta Ramona of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation, Mexico
UNASUR summit in the Palacio de la Moneda, Santiago de Chile
Honduran demonstrator holding a banner with a "don't turn left" sign, 2009.
Eighteenth-century Mexican Casta painting showing 16 castas hierarchically arranged. Ignacio Maria Barreda, 1777. Real Academia Española de la Lengua, Madrid.
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The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombia, Department of Nariño.
World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 CIA World Factbook). Grey = no data.
2012 map of countries by homicide rate. As of 2015, the Latin American countries with the highest rates were El Salvador (108.64 per 100,000 people), Honduras (63.75) and Venezuela (57.15). The countries with the lowest rates were Chile (3.59), Cuba (4.72) and Argentina (6.53).
Sumidero Canyon, located in Chiapas, Mexico.
Glaucous macaw (behind hyacinth macaw) and other macaws. Macaws are long-tailed, often colorful New World parrots.
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tons. Latin America produces more than half of the world's sugarcane.
Soybean plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tons. Latin America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tons. Latin America produces half of the world's coffee.
Oranges in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tons. Latin America produces 30% of the world's oranges.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. Latin America produces 25% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
Chile is a first world producer of copper.
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. Latin America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emeralds, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Panama Canal expansion project; New Agua Clara locks (Atlantic side)
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge
Mexico City International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Itaipu Dam in Paraná.
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Native New World crops exchanged globally: maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cocoa, tobacco
Rafael Correa, Evo Morales, Néstor Kirchner, Cristina Fernández, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Nicanor Duarte, and Hugo Chávez at the signing of the founding charter of the Bank of the South
Aerial view of Cancún. Mexico is the most visited country in Latin America and 6th in the world.
Roman Catholic Easter procession in Comayagua, Honduras
Nicaraguan women wearing the Mestizaje costume, which is a traditional costume worn to dance the Mestizaje dance. The costume demonstrates the Spanish influence upon Nicaraguan clothing.
Diego Rivera's mural depicting Mexico's history at the National Palace in Mexico City
Mural by Santiago Martinez Delgado at the Colombian Congress
The Guadalajara International Film Festival is considered the most prestigious film festival in Latin America.
In 2015, Alejandro González Iñárritu became the second Mexican director in a row to win both the Academy Award for Best Director and the Directors Guild of America Award for Best Director. He won his second Oscar in 2016 for The Revenant.
President Cristina Fernández with the film director Juan José Campanella and the cast of The Secret in Their Eyes (2009) with the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz in 1772 by Andrés de Islas
Argentine Jorge Luis Borges in L'Hôtel, Paris in 1969
Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral, first Latin American to win a Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1945
García Márquez signing a copy of One Hundred Years of Solitude
Salsa dancing in Cali, Colombia
Traditional Mexican dance Jarabe Tapatío
Brazilian singer Carmen Miranda helped popularize samba internationally.
A couple dances tango.
Simón Bolívar, Liberator of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Panama
José de San Martín, Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru.
Bernardo O'Higgins, hero of Chilean independence
Father Miguel Hidalgo, father of Mexican independence, with the banner of Our Lady of Guadalupe
Vicente Guerrero, insurgent hero of Mexican independence, who joined with Iturbide
Agustín de Iturbide, former royal military officer who brought about Mexican independence and was crowned emperor

Latin America is the cultural region of the Americas comprising multiple nation-states where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin, i.e., Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken.

Cape Verde

Archipelago and island country in the central Atlantic Ocean, consisting of ten volcanic islands with a combined land area of about 4033 km2.

Insulae Capitis Viridis (1598), showing Cape Verde
A view of Monte Cara from Mindelo
Grain ship Garthpool, wrecked at Boavista, Cape Verde, in 1928
Amílcar Cabral on a stamp of the former East Germany
Cape Verdean President Jorge Carlos Fonseca and Lígia Fonseca meet with US President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama in 2014.
Palácio da Justiça – Palace of Justice, in Praia
Map of countries with Cape Verdean embassies
Marines of the Cape Verdean Coast Guard
A topographic map of Cape Verde
A satellite photo of the Cape Verde islands, 2010
The beach of Calhau, with Monte Verde in the background, on the island of São Vicente
The countryside in Estrada Baía das Gatas
Beach east of Curral Velho, Boa Vista
The small valley (or dale) of Principal, Santiago Island
A proportional representation of Cape Verde exports, 2019
Cape Verdean national flag carrier TACV
Cabral Avenue, one of the main symbols of Cape Verde's development
Yachts in Porto Grande, Mindelo, on the island of São Vicente. Tourism is a growing source of income on the islands.
People in Santiago, the largest island in the country
A health clinic in a residential area of Praia
A kindergarten graduation on Santiago Island
University of Santiago
Cape Verdeans are a very musical people; The Chã das Caldeiras group is an example.
Newspapers of Cape Verde including Expresso das Ilhas, A Nação and Já
Cesária Évora, Cape Verdean singer
Fundação Amílcar Cabral, in Praia
Cachupa, typical Cape Verdean dish
Estádio Nacional de Cabo Verde in Praia
Porto Novo harbour in Santo Antão
Aristides Pereira International Airport in Boa Vista island

The name Cap-Vert, in turn, comes from the Portuguese language Cabo Verde ('green cape'), the name that Portuguese explorers gave the cape in 1444, a few years before they came across the islands.

Community of Portuguese Language Countries

The 12th CPLP Summit; Cabo Verde, 2018.
The seat of the Executive Secretariat of the CPLP is at Penafiel Palace, in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa of Portugal speaking at the 11th CPLP Summit.
President Michel Temer of Brazil speaking at the 15th Meeting of Ministers of Justice.
I Forum of Civil Society of the CPLP; 2010.
The tomb of Luís de Camões is a revered space in the Lusofonia. Lusophone heads of state pay respects here on visits to Portugal.
The 7th Meeting of Ministers of Culture at Sintra Palace; Portuguese Riviera, 2010.
11th CPLP Summit; Brasília, Brazil, 2016.
22nd Meeting of the Council of Ministers.
1st CPLP Global Economic Forum; 2014.

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as the CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth (Comunidade Lusófona), is an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

East Timor

Island country in Southeast Asia.

A demonstration for independence from Indonesia held in Australia during September 1999
José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, second president of East Timor
Xanana Gusmão, the first East Timorese president after Indonesian occupation
The fourteen municipalities of East Timor
Demonstration against Australia in December 2013
Köppen climate classification map for East Timor
Nominal GDP of East Timor (previous and data)
Fractional coins, "centavos", used locally as part of the United States dollar
A proportional representation of East Timor exports, 2019
Population pyramid
Major language groups in East Timor by suco
Escola Portuguesa Ruy Cinatti, the Portuguese School of Díli
The Church of Santo António de Motael, Dili
Igreja da Imaculada Conceição church, in Viqueque
Sacred house (lee teinu) in Lospalos
Traditional Timorese dancers
Players of the Timorese club Sport Dili e Benfica

"Timor" is derived from timur, the word for "east" in Malay, which became recorded as Timor in Portuguese, thus resulting in the tautological toponym meaning "East East"; in Indonesian, Timor Timur.


Country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest.

Mozambican dhow
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River
The Island of Mozambique is a small coral island at the mouth of Mossuril Bay on the Nacala coast of northern Mozambique, first explored by Europeans in the late 15th century.
View of the Central Avenue in Lourenço Marques, now Maputo, ca. 1905
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
Portuguese troops during the Portuguese Colonial War, some loading FN FAL and G3
A land mine victim in Mozambique
The geopolitical situation in 1975, nations friendly to the FRELIMO are shown in orange
A US helicopter flying over the flooded Limpopo River during the 2000 Mozambique flood
Satellite image
Mozambique map of Köppen climate classification zones
Incumbent President Filipe Nyusi
Maputo City Hall
A section of the crowd at its final campaign rally for the 2014 election
Mozambique's embassy in Washington, D.C.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi meets members of Indian community in Mozambique, 7 July 2016
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mozambique, since 1960
A proportional representation of Mozambique's exports
Traditional sailboat in Ilha de Moçambique
European tourists on the beach, in Inhambane, Mozambique
Vilanculos beach Mozambique
Carrying goods on head in Mozambique
Steam locomotive at Inhambane, 2009
National Mozambican airline, LAM Mozambique
Woman fetching water during the dry season from a polluted source in Machaze District of the Central Manica Province
Ethnic map of Mozambique
Population pyramid 2016
The increase in the number of HIV positive Mozambicans on Antiretroviral treatment, 2003–14
Woman with traditional mask in Mozambique
Island of Mozambique, 2016
Headquarters of Rádio Moçambique in KaMpfumo district of Maputo (photo 2009)
Lebombo Mountains
Gorongosa National Park
Island of Mozambique
Monte Binga
Ponta do Ouro
Pupils in front of their school in Nampula, Mozambique
School children in the classroom

The only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, which is spoken mostly as a second language by about half the population.


Country on the West coast of Southern Africa.

King João I, Manikongo of the Kingdom of Kongo
Coat of arms granted to King Afonso I of Kongo by King Manuel I of Portugal
Queen Ana de Sousa of Ndongo meeting with the Portuguese, 1657
Depiction of Luanda from 1755
History of Angola; written in Luanda in 1680.
Portuguese Armed Forces marching in Luanda during the Portuguese Colonial Wars (1961–74).
Members of the National Liberation Front of Angola training in 1973.
Agostinho Neto, first President of Angola.
Maximum extent of UNITA and South African operations in Angola and Zambia during the Angolan Civil War.
Cuban tank in Luanda during the Cuban intervention in Angola, 1976
Luanda is experiencing widespread urban renewal and redevelopment in the 21st century, backed largely by profits from oil & diamond industries.
Topography of Angola.
Map of Angola with the provinces numbered
Provincial Government of Huambo.
Provincial Government of Namibe.
The National Assembly of Angola.
João Lourenço, President of Angola
Soldiers of the Angolan Armed Forces in full dress uniform.
Angolan National Police officers.
Foreign Minister of Angola Manuel Domingos Augusto.
Diplomatic missions of Angola.
A proportional representation of Angola exports, 2019
GDP per capita 1950 to 2018
The National Bank of Angola.
Luanda Financial City.
Tourism in Angola has grown with the country's economy and stability.
Corporate headquarters in Luanda
An offshore oil drilling platform off the coast of central Angola
Capanda Dam on the Cuanza
TAAG Angola Airlines is the country's state-owned national carrier.
Catumbela Bridge in Benguela.
Lobito hosts a major seaport.
Luanda's construction boom is financed largely by oil and diamonds.
Population Pyramid of Angola in 2020.
Portuguese colonial architecture in the historic center of Benguela.
Roman Catholic Luanda Cathedral.
Catholic church of Uaco Cungo.
Lucrécia Paím Maternity Hospital.
Agostinho Neto University.
A primary school in Province of Cuanza Sul
Mutu-ya Kevela Prep. School
Agostinho Neto National Memorial in Luanda.
Yombe sculpture.
National Museum of Anthropology.
The National Stadium in Benguela.
Angola map of Köppen climate classification.
Historical ethnic divisions of Angola

Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese influence, namely the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church, intermingled with a variety of indigenous customs and traditions.

Romance languages

The Romance languages, less commonly referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the 3rd and 8th centuries.

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones. FP: Franco-Provençal, IR: Istro-Romanian.
Romance languages and dialects
European extent of Romance languages in the 20th century
Number of native speakers of each Romance language, as fractions of the total 690 million (2007)
Romance languages in the World
Length of the Roman rule and the Romance Languages
Romance languages in Europe
Romance languages in the World

The six most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish (489 million), Portuguese (283 million), French (77 million), Italian (67 million), Romanian (24 million), and Catalan (4.5 million).

Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family native to the overwhelming majority of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the northern Indian subcontinent.

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.
Indo-European family tree in order of first attestation
Indo-European language family tree based on "Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis of Indo-European languages" by Chang et al
Scheme of Indo-European language dispersals from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the widely held Kurgan hypothesis. – Center: Steppe cultures 1 (black): Anatolian languages (archaic PIE) 2 (black): Afanasievo culture (early PIE) 3 (black) Yamnaya culture expansion (Pontic-Caspian steppe, Danube Valley) (late PIE) 4A (black): Western Corded Ware 4B-C (blue & dark blue): Bell Beaker; adopted by Indo-European speakers 5A-B (red): Eastern Corded ware 5C (red): Sintashta (proto-Indo-Iranian) 6 (magenta): Andronovo 7A (purple): Indo-Aryans (Mittani) 7B (purple): Indo-Aryans (India) [NN] (dark yellow): proto-Balto-Slavic 8 (grey): Greek 9 (yellow):Iranians – [not drawn]: Armenian, expanding from western steppe

Some European languages of this family, such as English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Dutch, and Spanish, have expanded through colonialism in the modern period and are now spoken across several continents.


Timeline of the Roman conquest of Hispania (220 BC–19 BC), with Roman provincial boundaries shown
Linguistic map: This shows the Linguistic variation of the Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC (at the end of the Second Punic War).
Carthaginian influence sphere before the First Punic War.
Hispania under Caesar Augustus's rule after the Cantabrian Wars in 29 BC
Roman Hispania in 125
Provinces of Hispania under the Tetrarchy
Iberian Peninsula (AD 530–AD 570)
The Iberian Peninsula in the year 560 AD
Umayyad Hispania at its greatest extent 719 AD

Hispania (nearly identically pronounced in Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, and Italian for "Spain") was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces.

South America

Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
A composite relief image of South America
Modern political map of South America
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
South American flags
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Official languages in South America
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Peruvian woman and her son
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese, and societies and states are rich in Western traditions.