Portuguese language

Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese.
Sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan, which has a large lusophone community due to return immigration of Japanese Brazilians.
Countries and regions where Portuguese has official status.
Multilingual signage in Chinese, Portuguese and English at the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge port building in Macau. Portuguese is a co-official language in Macau.
Ethnically diverse East Timor has Portuguese as one of its official languages.
Statue of the Portuguese Poet Luís de Camões at the entrence of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Portugal's Portuguese Dialects.
Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
In Brasília, the Senate committee room during a meeting of the Education, Culture and Sport Committee in 2014. The committee holds a public hearing to discuss the Orthographic Agreement for the Portuguese Language, signed in 1990 and implemented in January 2016. The new rules must apply for the eight countries that have Portuguese as an official language, including Brazil, Portugal, etc.
Linguistic map of Pre-Roman Iberia.
Library of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
A sign at Goa Central Library, in Panaji, India, listing three Portuguese-language newspapers
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese (Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbors between the year 1000 and 2000.
Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian and Occitano-Romance languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (areas colored green, gold or pink/purple represent languages deemed endangered by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian, Mirandese and the Fala as not only closely related but as dialect continuum, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal (Azores and Madeira–Canaries is not shown either).
An Old Portuguese Memento mori memorial sign in Malacca City.
Participating countries of the Lusophony Games.
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its in central schwa position.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Recife.
The main post office building of Macau
The Bissau-Guinean Presidential Palace, with its Portuguese colonial architecture, is a building that has a library, a small theater and was formerly the palace of the colonial governor of Portuguese-Guinea, seen from the PAIGC-building (formerly the seat of the local commercial association Associação Comercial, Industrial e Agrícola de Bissau), located at the Praça dos Heróis Nacionais square (formerly Praça do Império square), in downtown Bissau.
The Natural History Museum of Mozambique (Manueline) in Maputo.
The Fundação Oriente of Fontainhas, India. The Fundação Oriente, along with Instituto Camões, Instituto Menezes Bragança among others, are institutions dedicated to the worldwide promotion of the Portuguese language and culture.
The International Portuguese Language Institute headquarters, in Praia.

Western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.

- Portuguese language
Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese.

162 related topics

Alpha

The PALOP, highlighted in red

Portuguese-speaking African countries

The PALOP, highlighted in red
Members of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)

The Portuguese-speaking African countries (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa; PALOP), also known as Lusophone Africa, consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.

X-rays of Daniel Jones'.

Nasal vowel

Vowel that is produced with a lowering of the soft palate so that the air flow escapes through the nose and the mouth simultaneously, as in the French vowel or Amoy [].

Vowel that is produced with a lowering of the soft palate so that the air flow escapes through the nose and the mouth simultaneously, as in the French vowel or Amoy [].

X-rays of Daniel Jones'.

Portuguese allows nasal diphthongs, which contrast with their oral counterparts, like the pair mau "bad" and mão "hand".

Extremaduran language

Group of vernacular Romance dialects, related to the Asturleonese language, spoken in Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.

Group of vernacular Romance dialects, related to the Asturleonese language, spoken in Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.

Preservation of some old voiced fricatives, such as some instances of corresponding to in Portuguese or corresponding to in Portuguese (both corresponding to /θ/ in Spanish). This feature is an archaism preserved from Old Spanish or Old Astur-Leonese, as it happens only when it is etymologically justified. When a voiced fricative appears, one also does in languages such as Catalan or Portuguese: Extremaduran tristeza 'sadness' (still voiced in Portuguese tristeza, voice lost in Spanish tristeza ), but Extremaduran cabeça 'head' (voiceless also in Portuguese cabeça , Spanish cabeza ). The feature is dying out quite fast but is found all over the High Extremaduran speaking area.

Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC.

Lusitanians

Indo-European speaking people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania.

Indo-European speaking people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania.

Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC.
Lusitanian lunula from Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)
Generalised distribution and movements of Bell-Beaker cultures
Map showing the main pre-Roman tribes in Portugal and their main migrations: Turduli movement in red, Celtici in brown, and Lusitanian in blue; most tribes neighbouring the Lusitanians were dependent on them. Names are in Latin.
Statue of Viriatus, the Lusitanian leader during the Lusitanian War (155 to 139 BCE).

Lusitanians are often used by Portuguese writers as a metaphor for the Portuguese people, and similarly, Lusophone is used to refer to a Portuguese speaker.

Street sign in Genísio, with the street name in Mirandese and in Portuguese

Mirandese language

Astur-Leonese language or language variety that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in Terra de Miranda (made up of the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso).

Astur-Leonese language or language variety that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in Terra de Miranda (made up of the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso).

Street sign in Genísio, with the street name in Mirandese and in Portuguese
Public sign with the history of the Cathedral of Miranda do Douro, written in Mirandese.

The Assembly of the Republic granted it official recognition alongside Portuguese for local matters on 17 September 1998 with the law 7/99 of 29 January 1999.

Olivenza

Town located in southwestern Spain, near the Portuguese border, on a historically disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border.

Town located in southwestern Spain, near the Portuguese border, on a historically disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border.

View of the Castle of Olivenza from the South circa 1509, as drawn by Duarte D'Armas.
Part of an 18th-century Spanish map, showing Olivenza as part of Portugal
Ruins of 16th-century Ponte da Ajuda over the Guadiana, in the ancient road between Elvas and Olivenza
Church interior, built in Manueline late-gothic style.
Door of the Olivenza's city hall, also Manueline

1840 – The Portuguese language is forbidden in the territory of Olivenza, including inside churches.

Map of France in 1180, at the height of the feudal system.
The possessions of the French king are in light blue, vassals to the French king in green, Angevin possessions in red. Shown in white is the Holy Roman Empire to the east, the western fringes of which, including Upper Burgundy and Lorraine, were also part of the Old French areal.

Old French

The language spoken in most of the northern half of France from approximately the 8th to the 14th centuries.

The language spoken in most of the northern half of France from approximately the 8th to the 14th centuries.

Map of France in 1180, at the height of the feudal system.
The possessions of the French king are in light blue, vassals to the French king in green, Angevin possessions in red. Shown in white is the Holy Roman Empire to the east, the western fringes of which, including Upper Burgundy and Lorraine, were also part of the Old French areal.
Distribution of the modern langue d'oïl (shades of green) and of Franco-Provençal dialects (shades of blue)

Old Occitan also preserved this tense, with a conditional value; Spanish still preserves this tense (the -ra imperfect subjunctive), as does Portuguese (in its original value as a pluperfect indicative).

Front of the first edition of Os Lusíadas

Os Lusíadas

Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (c.

Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (c.

Front of the first edition of Os Lusíadas
This figure illustrates the path of Vasco da Gama heading for the first time to India (black) as well as the trips of Pêro da Covilhã (orange) and Afonso de Paiva (blue). The path common to both is the green line.
Os Lusiadas – Canto IV – 87
Pictorial book in Municipal Library of Campo Maior, in Piauí, Brazil.

Jupiter is described as the "Father" ("Padre" – archaic Portuguese for 'father') who "vibrates the fierce rays of Vulcan" ("vibra os feros raios de Vulcano") and presides from a "crystalline seat of stars" ("assento de estrelas cristalino"), carrying "a gleaming crown and sceptre / of another rock clearer than diamond" ("hua coroa e ceptro rutilante / de outra pedra mais clara que diamante").

Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC

Celtici

Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC
Map of the main pre-Roman tribes in Portugal and their migrations. Turduli movement in red, Celtici in brown and Lusitanian in blue.
Celtic expansions in western Europe (Celtici - south Portugal and south-western Spain).

The Celtici (in Portuguese, Spanish, and Galician languages, Célticos) were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Province of Badajoz and north of Province of Huelva in Spain, in the ancient Baeturia; and along the coastal areas of Galicia.

Conventus Asturum in the first century BC

Leonese language

Set of vernacular Romance language varieties currently spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.

Set of vernacular Romance language varieties currently spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.

Conventus Asturum in the first century BC
The Leonese Romance language expanded into new territories of the Kingdom of León.
Atlas of 20th-century European Romance languages
Dialects of Asturian-Leonese
Percentage of Asturleonese speakers, according to Iniciativa pol Asturianu
2009 linguistic map of Zamora and León
Ad hoc "translation" into Leonese

In fact, it is often considered as a separate language, especially in Portugal, where it is an official language along with Portuguese and it is regulated by the Institute of the Mirandese Language.