Portuguese phonology

PortugueseBrazilian PortugueseepentheticPortuguese dialectssee below
The phonology of Portuguese varies among dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.wikipedia
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Portuguese dialects

Portuguese dialectdialectdialects
For more detailed information on regional accents, see Portuguese dialects, and for historical sound changes see.

Velarization

velarizedvelarisedbroad
Brazilian Portuguese disallows some closed syllables: coda nasals are deleted with concomitant nasalization of the preceding vowel, even in learned words; coda becomes, except for conservative velarization at the extreme south and rhotacism in remote rural areas in the center of the country; the coda rhotic is usually deleted entirely when word-final, especially in verbs in the infinitive form; and /i/ can be epenthesized after almost all other coda-final consonants.

Nasal palatal approximant

J̃ j̃ j̇̃J̃ j̇̃
(Here [ɰ̃] means a velar nasal approximant.) At the end of a word ⟨em⟩ is always pronounced with a clear nasal palatal approximant (see below).

Nasal consonant

NasalNasalsnasal consonants
In some cases, the nasal archiphoneme even entails the insertion of a nasal consonant such as (compare ), as in the following examples:

Portuguese orthography

PortuguesePortuguese alphabetorthography of Portuguese
Aside from historical set contractions formed by prepositions plus determiners or pronouns, like à/dà, ao/do, nesse, dele, etc., on one hand and combined clitic pronouns such as mo/ma/mos/mas (it/him/her/them to/for me), and so on, on the other, Portuguese spelling does not reflect vowel sandhi.
A full list of sounds, diphthongs, and their main spellings, is given at Portuguese phonology.

Close back unrounded vowel

near-close near-back unrounded vowelclose backɯ
European Portuguese possesses a near-close near-back unrounded vowel.

Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish

Differences between Spanish and PortugueseSpanish and PortugueseCombining pronouns in Spanish
Both Spanish and Portuguese use ⟨zz⟩ (never as – this sequence appears only in loanwords from Japanese, e.g., adzuki) for some Italian loanwords, but in Portuguese may sometimes not be pronounced as affricate, but having an epenthetic or ; e.g., Sp.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Since Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) can be considerable, both varieties are distinguished whenever necessary.

Pluricentric language

pluricentricPluricentric Serbo-Croatian languagepolycentric standard language
Since Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) can be considerable, both varieties are distinguished whenever necessary.

European Portuguese

EuropeanPortuguese (Europe) Portuguese
Since Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) can be considerable, both varieties are distinguished whenever necessary.

Brazilian Portuguese

PortugueseBrazilianPortuguese (Brazil)
Since Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) can be considerable, both varieties are distinguished whenever necessary.

Prosody (linguistics)

prosodyprosodicsuprasegmental
One of the most salient differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody.

Isochrony

syllable-timedrhythmstress-timed
European Portuguese is a stress-timed language, with reduction, devoicing or even deletion of unstressed vowels and a general tolerance of syllable-final consonants. The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.

Rio Grande do Sul

RSRio Grande do Sul stateRio Grande do Sol
The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.

Bahia

Bahia, BrazilBABahia state
The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.

Mineiro

The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.

Minas Gerais

MGMinas Gerais stateState of Minas Gerais
The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.

São Paulo (state)

São PauloSão Paulo stateSP
The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.

Rio de Janeiro (state)

Rio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro stateRJ
The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed.