PostScript

PS.EPS, .PSPSCRIPTAdobe PostScriptAdobe's PostScriptPostScript (PS)PostScript 3PostScript artworkPostScript documentPostscript language
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.wikipedia
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Adobe Inc.

AdobeAdobe SystemsAdobe Systems Incorporated
It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984.
Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language.

LaserWriter

Apple LaserWriterLaserWriter Plus
In March 1985, the Apple LaserWriter was the first printer to ship with PostScript, sparking the desktop publishing (DTP) revolution in the mid-1980s.
The LaserWriter is a laser printer with built-in PostScript interpreter sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1985 to 1988.

Desktop publishing

DTPdigital typographydesktop publisher
In March 1985, the Apple LaserWriter was the first printer to ship with PostScript, sparking the desktop publishing (DTP) revolution in the mid-1980s. PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
The LaserWriter and LaserWriter Plus printers included high quality, scalable Adobe PostScript fonts built into their ROM memory.

PDF

PDF format.pdfPDF file
By 2001, few lower-end printer models came with support for PostScript, largely due to growing competition from much cheaper non-PostScript ink jet printers, and new software-based methods to render PostScript images on the computer, making them suitable for any printer; PDF, a descendant of PostScript, provides one such method, and has largely replaced PostScript as de facto standard for electronic document distribution.
Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it. PDF was standardized as an open format, ISO 32000, in 2008, and no longer requires any royalties for its implementation.

Computer graphics

graphicsCGcomputer-generated
The concepts of the PostScript language were seeded in 1966 when John Warnock was working at Evans & Sutherland, a computer graphics company.
As the UU computer graphics laboratory was attracting people from all over, John Warnock was another of those early pioneers; he would later found Adobe Systems and create a revolution in the publishing world with his PostScript page description language, and Adobe would go on later to create the industry standard photo editing software in Adobe Photoshop and a prominent movie industry special effects program in Adobe After Effects.

John Warnock

John E. and Marva M. WarnockWarnock
It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984. The concepts of the PostScript language were seeded in 1966 when John Warnock was working at Evans & Sutherland, a computer graphics company.
In 1976, while Warnock worked at Evans & Sutherland, a Salt Lake City-based computer graphics company, the concepts of the PostScript language were seeded.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Computer, Inc.
In March 1985, the Apple LaserWriter was the first printer to ship with PostScript, sparking the desktop publishing (DTP) revolution in the mid-1980s.
The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be sold at a reasonable price, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package.

Laser printing

laser printerlaser printerslaser
Concurrently, researchers at Xerox PARC had developed the first laser printer and had recognized the need for a standard means of defining page images.
1985: Apple introduced the LaserWriter (also based on the Canon CX engine), but used the newly released PostScript page-description language. Up until this point, each manufacturer used its own proprietary page-description language, making the supporting software complex and expensive. PostScript allowed the use of text, fonts, graphics, images, and color largely independent of the printer's brand or resolution. PageMaker, written by Aldus for the Macintosh and LaserWriter, was also released in 1985 and the combination became very popular for desktop publishing. Laser printers brought exceptionally fast and high-quality text printing in multiple fonts on a page, to the business and consumer markets. No other commonly available printer during this era could also offer this combination of features.

Charles Geschke

It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984.
Geschke and co-founder Warnock's Interpress language evolved into Adobe's PostScript, which when combined with hardware from Apple computer, formed the first desktop publishing (DTP) system where anyone could set type, compose documents, and print them as they appeared on the screen electronically.

Page description language

printer control languagePCLPDL
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
PostScript is one of the most noted page description languages.

PARC (company)

Xerox PARCPARCPalo Alto Research Center
Concurrently, researchers at Xerox PARC had developed the first laser printer and had recognized the need for a standard means of defining page images.
Interpress, a resolution-independent graphical page-description language and the precursor to PostScript

Concatenative programming language

concatenativeconcatenative languagesconcatenative programming
It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984.
Other concatenative languages are Cat, Enchilada, Factor, Onyx, PostScript, RPL, Staapl, Trith, XY, Kitten, Om, and Min.

Interpress

But Press, a data format rather than a language, lacked flexibility, and PARC mounted the Interpress effort to create a successor.
Two of its creators, Chuck Geschke and John Warnock, left Xerox, formed Adobe Systems, and produced a similar language called PostScript.

PostScript fonts

Type 1CFFPostScript Type 1
At the time, the technology for including these hints in fonts was carefully guarded, and the hinted fonts were compressed and encrypted into what Adobe called a Type 1 Font (also known as PostScript Type 1 Font, PS1, T1 or Adobe Type 1). Type 1 was effectively a simplification of the PS system to store outline information only, as opposed to being a complete language (PDF is similar in this regard). The CFF/Type2 format later became the basis for handling PostScript outlines in OpenType fonts.
This system uses PostScript file format to encode font information.

OpenType

OTF.otfAdobe's SING
The CFF/Type2 format later became the basis for handling PostScript outlines in OpenType fonts.
These efforts were intended by Microsoft and Adobe to supersede both Apple's TrueType and Adobe's Type 1 ("PostScript") font formats.

Martin Newell (computer scientist)

Martin NewellMartin E. Newell
In 1978 Warnock left Evans & Sutherland and joined Xerox PARC to work with Martin Newell.
Later he worked at Xerox PARC, where he worked on JaM, a predecessor of PostScript.

Typeface

fonttypefacesfonts
The characters on these systems were drawn as a series of dots, as defined by a font table inside the printer.
Digital fonts may also contain data representing the metrics used for composition, including kerning pairs, component creation data for accented characters, glyph substitution rules for Arabic typography and for connecting script faces, and for simple everyday ligatures like fl. Common font formats include TrueType, OpenType and PostScript Type 1, while Metafont is still used by TeX and its variants.

TrueType

TTFTrueType fonts.TTF
To compete with Adobe's system, Apple designed their own system, TrueType, around 1991. At one point, Microsoft licensed to Apple a PostScript-compatible interpreter it had bought called TrueImage, and Apple licensed to Microsoft its new font format, TrueType.
TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript.

Xerox Star

StarXerox 8010 ('Star') SystemXerox 8010 Star
In 1975-76 Bob Sproull and William Newman developed the Press format, which was eventually used in the Xerox Star system to drive laser printers.
L Peter Deutsch, one of the pioneers of the Postscript language, finally found a way to achieve Xerox-Star-like efficiency using just-in-time compilation in the early 1990s for bitmap operations, making the last bit of Xerox-Star custom hardware, the BitBLT, obsolete by 1990.

Metafont

In the early 1990s there were several other systems for storing outline-based fonts, developed by Bitstream and METAFONT for instance, but none included a general-purpose printing solution and they were therefore not widely used.
It is also the name of the interpreter that executes Metafont code, generating the bitmap fonts that can be embedded into e.g. PostScript.

Motorola 68000

68000M68000MC68000
The LaserWriter used a 12 MHz Motorola 68000, making it faster than any of the Macintosh computers to which it attached.
Other printer manufacturers adopted the 68000, including Apple with its introduction of the LaserWriter in 1985, the first PostScript laser printer.

Bézier curve

BézierQuadratic bézier curvebezier
PostScript is noteworthy for implementing on-the fly rasterization; everything, even text, is specified in terms of straight lines and cubic Bézier curves (previously found only in CAD applications), which allows arbitrary scaling, rotating and other transformations.
A composite Bézier curve is commonly referred to as a "path" in vector graphics languages (like PostScript), vector graphics standards (like SVG) and vector graphics programs (like Artline, Timeworks Publisher, Adobe Illustrator, CorelDraw and Inkscape).

Ghostscript

Ghostviewgsgsview
A free software version, with several other applications, is Ghostscript.
Ghostscript is a suite of software based on an interpreter for Adobe Systems' PostScript and Portable Document Format (PDF) page description languages.

Harlequin RIP

Other third-party PostScript solutions used by print and MFP manufacturers include Jaws and the Harlequin RIP, both by Global Graphics.
The Harlequin RIP is a raster image processor first released in 1990 under the name "ScriptWorks" running as a command-line application to render PostScript language files under Unix.

TrueImage

At one point, Microsoft licensed to Apple a PostScript-compatible interpreter it had bought called TrueImage, and Apple licensed to Microsoft its new font format, TrueType.
TrueImage is a PostScript-compatible interpreter (clone) originally developed by Cal Bauer and Bauer Enterprises and sold to Microsoft in 1989.