PostgresJSONBlibpqP'''ostgreSQLpgadminpgAdmin IIIPGSQLphpPgAdminPostgreSQL 8.4+PostgreSQL 9.5 release
PostgreSQL, often simply Postgres, is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) with an emphasis on extensibility and standards compliance.wikipedia
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Michael Stonebraker

Stonebraker, MichaelH-StoreMike Stonebraker
In 1982, the leader of the Ingres team, Michael Stonebraker, left Berkeley to make a proprietary version of Ingres.
Stonebraker's career can be broadly divided into two phases: his time at University of California, Berkeley when he focused on relational database management systems such as Ingres and Postgres, and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he developed more novel data management techniques such as C-Store, H-Store and SciDB.

Ingres (database)

IngresIngres Corporation Ingres database
Originally named POSTGRES, the name (Post Ingres) refers to the project's origins in that database which was developed at University of California, Berkeley.
Postgres (Post Ingres), a project which started in the mid-1980s, later evolved into PostgreSQL.


Examples of these include the geographic information system (GIS) data types from the PostGIS project for PostgreSQL.
PostGIS is an open source software program that adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL object-relational database.


A similar project is called Postgres-XL.
Postgres-XL is a distributed relational database management system (RDBMS) software based on PostgreSQL.


SymmetricDS multi-master, multi-tier replication
It includes support for Oracle, MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Greenplum, SQL Server, SQL Server Azure, HSQLDB, H2, Derby, DB2, Firebird, Informix, Interbase, SQLite, Sybase ASE, Sybase ASA, MongoDB, Amazon_Redshift, and VoltDB databases.


Structured Query LanguageSQL DatabasesWikibook SQL
It is abbreviated as Postgres because of ubiquitous support for the SQL standard among (at least early version of) most relational databases.
SQL Server 2005 uses the SQLCLR (SQL Server Common Language Runtime) to host managed .NET assemblies in the database, while prior versions of SQL Server were restricted to unmanaged extended stored procedures primarily written in C. PostgreSQL lets users write functions in a wide variety of languages—including Perl, Python, Tcl, JavaScript (PL/V8) and C.


Built-in interfaces include libpq (PostgreSQL's official C application interface) and ECPG (an embedded C system).
ECPG is the standard, in the PostgreSQL database built-in, client programming interface for embedding SQL in programs written in the C programming language.

Block Range Index

PostgreSQL includes built-in support for regular B-tree and hash indexes, and four index access methods: generalized search trees (GiST), generalized inverted indexes (GIN), Space-Partitioned GiST (SP-GiST) and Block Range Indexes (BRIN).
So far PostgreSQL is the only vendor to have announced a live product with this specific feature, in PostgreSQL 9.5.

Multiversion concurrency control

MVCCMVCC architectureMulti Version Concurrency Control (MVCC)
PostgreSQL manages concurrency through a system known as multiversion concurrency control (MVCC), which gives each transaction a "snapshot" of the database, allowing changes to be made without being visible to other transactions until the changes are committed.
PostgreSQL adopts this approach with its VACUUM process.


Slony-I is an asynchronous master-slave replication system for the PostgreSQL DBMS, providing support for cascading and failover.

MacOS Server

Mac OS X ServerOS X Serverserver
It can handle workloads ranging from small single-machine applications to large Internet-facing applications (or for data warehousing) with many concurrent users; on macOS Server, PostgreSQL is the default database; and it is also available for Microsoft Windows and Linux (supplied in most distributions).
* PHP, Python, PostgreSQL, Apache, and BIND versions:

Materialized view

materialised view
PostgreSQL has updatable views and materialized views, triggers, foreign keys; supports functions and stored procedures, and other expandability.
In PostgreSQL, version 9.3 and newer natively support materialized views.

QUEL query languages

QUELIngres QUELPOSTQUEL query language
At the time, POSTGRES used an Ingres-influenced POSTQUEL query language interpreter, which could be interactively used with a console application named monitor.
QUEL was used for a short time in most products based on the freely available Ingres source code, most notably in an implementation called POSTQUEL supported by POSTGRES.

Relational database management system

RDBMSrelational database management systemsrelational database
These can take the form of any data source, such as a file system, another RDBMS, or a web service.
According to DB-Engines, in June 2018, the most widely used systems were Oracle, MySQL (Free software), Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL (Free software), IBM DB2, Microsoft Access, and SQLite (Free software).


Generalized Search Tree
PostgreSQL includes built-in support for regular B-tree and hash indexes, and four index access methods: generalized search trees (GiST), generalized inverted indexes (GIN), Space-Partitioned GiST (SP-GiST) and Block Range Indexes (BRIN).
The most widely used GiST implementation is in the PostgreSQL relational database; it was also implemented in the Informix Universal Server, and as a standalone library, libgist.


PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL)
PL/pgSQL (safe), which resembles Oracle's PL/SQL procedural language and SQL/PSM.
PL/pgSQL (Procedural Language/PostgreSQL) is a procedural programming language supported by the PostgreSQL ORDBMS.


ArcGIS DesktopArcGIS GeodatabaseArcGIS geographic information system
ST-Links SpatialKit: Link Tool to ArcGIS
Enterprise (multi-user) level geodatabases are handled using ArcSDE, which interfaces with high-end DBMS such as PostgreSQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2 and Informix to handle database management aspects, while ArcGIS deals with spatial data management.

View (SQL)

viewviewsdatabase view
PostgreSQL has updatable views and materialized views, triggers, foreign keys; supports functions and stored procedures, and other expandability.
PostgreSQL implemented materialized views in its 9.3 release.


PostgreSQL implements features of old and up to later versions.
PostgreSQL requires installation of the temporal_tables extension.

Regular expression

regular expressionsregexregexp
Regular expressions
Software projects that have adopted Spencer's Tcl regular expression implementation include PostgreSQL.

Partial index

Partialpartial indices
Partial indexes, which only index part of a table, can be created by adding a WHERE clause to the end of the CREATE INDEX statement. This allows a smaller index to be created.
Partial indexes have been supported in PostgreSQL since version 7.2, released in February 2002.

Fork (software development)

Postgres-R is yet another older fork.
Examples include macOS (based on the proprietary NeXTSTEP and the open source FreeBSD), Cedega and CrossOver (proprietary forks of Wine, though CrossOver tracks Wine and contributes considerably), EnterpriseDB (a fork of PostgreSQL, adding Oracle compatibility features ), Supported PostgreSQL with their proprietary ESM storage system, and Netezza's proprietary highly scalable derivative of PostgreSQL.


psycopg2: Python interface (also used by HTSQL)
The current implementation as of April 2010 uses Python and works with PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server databases.

Insert (SQL)

For example, an INSERT statement might activate a trigger that checks if the values of the statement are valid.
This feature is supported by DB2, SQL Server (since version 10.0 - i.e. 2008), PostgreSQL (since version 8.2), MySQL, sqlite (since version 3.7.11) and H2.


back in time
Savepoints are defined in the SQL standard and are supported by all established SQL relational databases, including PostgreSQL, Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, DB2, SQLite (since 3.6.8), Firebird, H2 Database Engine, and Informix (since version 11.50xC3).