A report on Potassium

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

- Potassium
The flame test of potassium.

94 related topics with Alpha

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Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.

Sodium

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Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

By means of the sodium-potassium pump, living human cells pump three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in; comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside, potassium measures about 40:1, and sodium, about 1:10.

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

Alkali metal

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Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada

Mineral

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In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
Schist is a metamorphic rock characterized by an abundance of platy minerals. In this example, the rock has prominent sillimanite porphyroblasts as large as 3 cm.
Hübnerite, the manganese-rich end-member of the wolframite series, with minor quartz in the background
When minerals react, the products will sometimes assume the shape of the reagent; the product mineral is termed a pseudomorph of (or after) the reagent. Illustrated here is a pseudomorph of kaolinite after orthoclase. Here, the pseudomorph preserved the Carlsbad twinning common in orthoclase.
Topaz has a characteristic orthorhombic elongated crystal shape.
Contact twins, as seen in spinel
Diamond is the hardest natural material, and has a Mohs hardness of 10.
Pyrite has a metallic lustre.
Perfect basal cleavage as seen in biotite (black), and good cleavage seen in the matrix (pink orthoclase).
Galena, PbS, is a mineral with a high specific gravity.
Carnotite (yellow) is a radioactive uranium-bearing mineral.
Aegirine, an iron-sodium clinopyroxene, is part of the inosilicate subclass.
Natrolite is a mineral series in the zeolite group; this sample has a very prominent acicular crystal habit.
Muscovite, a mineral species in the mica group, within the phyllosilicate subclass
Asbestiform tremolite, part of the amphibole group in the inosilicate subclass
An example of elbaite, a species of tourmaline, with distinctive colour banding.
Epidote often has a distinctive pistachio-green colour.
Black andradite, an end-member of the orthosilicate garnet group.
Native gold. Rare specimen of stout crystals growing off of a central stalk, size 3.7 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm, from Venezuela.
Red cinnabar (HgS), a mercury ore, on dolomite.
Sphalerite crystal partially encased in calcite from the Devonian Milwaukee Formation of Wisconsin
Pink cubic halite (NaCl; halide class) crystals on a nahcolite matrix (NaHCO3; a carbonate, and mineral form of sodium bicarbonate, used as baking soda).
Gypsum desert rose

These eight elements, summing to over 98% of the crust by weight, are, in order of decreasing abundance: oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium.

Polycrystalline potash, with a U.S. penny for reference. (The coin is 19 mm in diameter and copper in color.)

Potash

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Polycrystalline potash, with a U.S. penny for reference. (The coin is 19 mm in diameter and copper in color.)
The first U.S. patent was issued for an improvement "in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process"; it was signed by then President George Washington.
A covered hopper car in a Canadian train for shipping potash by rail.
A postcard of the Kalium Chemicals plant in Belle Plaine, Saskatchewan
Potash evaporation ponds at the Intrepid Potash mine near Moab, Utah

Potash is the name used for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.

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Periodic table

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Tabular display of the chemical elements.

Tabular display of the chemical elements.

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3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
Idealized order of shell-filling (most accurate for n  ≲ 4.)
Trend in atomic radii
Graph of first ionisation energies of the elements in electronvolts (predictions used for elements 105–118)
Trend in electron affinities
Flowing liquid mercury. Its liquid state at room temperature is a result of special relativity.
A periodic table colour-coded to show some commonly used sets of similar elements. The categories and their boundaries differ somewhat between sources. Alkali metals
 Alkaline earth metals
 Lanthanides
 Actinides
 Transition metals Other metals
 Metalloids
 Other nonmetals
 Halogens
 Noble gases
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley
Periodic table of van den Broek
Glenn T. Seaborg
One possible form of the extended periodic table to element 172, suggested by Finnish chemist Pekka Pyykkö. Deviations from the Madelung order (8s < < 6f < 7d < 8p) begin to appear at elements 139 and 140, though for the most part it continues to hold approximately.
Otto Theodor Benfey's spiral periodic table (1964)
Iron, a metal
Sulfur, a nonmetal
Arsenic, an element often called a semi-metal or metalloid

Starting the next row, for potassium and calcium the 4s orbital is the lowest in energy, and therefore they fill it.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

"W" (wolfram) for tungsten ultimately derives from German, "K" (kalium) for potassium ultimately from Arabic.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7

Lithium

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Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Lithium floating in oil
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Polymers
Primary aluminum production
Pharmaceuticals
Other (5%)

Like the other alkali metals (which are sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)), lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.

Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade.

Potassium chloride

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Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade.
"Raise banana yields using Israeli potassium chloride!", an ad above a highway in a banana-growing district of Hekou County, Yunnan, China
Sylvite
Sylvinite

Potassium chloride (KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.

A handmade soap bar

Soap

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Salt of a fatty acid used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products.

Salt of a fatty acid used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products.

A handmade soap bar
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical ingredient found in bar soaps.
The chemical structure of sodium laureth sulfate, a typical ingredient found in liquid soaps.
A collection of decorative bar soaps, as often found in hotels
Structure of a micelle, a cell-like structure formed by the aggregation of soap subunits (such as sodium stearate): The exterior of the micelle is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and the interior is lipophilic (attracted to oils).
Box for Amigo del Obrero (Worker's Friend) soap from the 20th century, part of the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection
Marseille soap in blocks of 600 g
Caricature of Lillie Langtry, from Punch, Christmas 1890: The soap box on which she sits reflects her endorsements of cosmetics and soaps.
Manufacturing process of soaps/detergents
Advertising for Dobbins' medicated toilet soap
A 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap
Liquid soap
Dudu-Osun a popular type of African black soap
Azul e branco soap – a bar of blue-white soap
Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères, France
Traditional Marseille soap
Modern soap shop in Tübingen (2019)
The lye is dissolved in water.
Greases for automotive applications contain soaps

When M is Na (Sodium) or K (Potassium), the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing.

Granite containing potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz, and biotite and/or amphibole

Granite

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Coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase.

Coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase.

Granite containing potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz, and biotite and/or amphibole
Thin section of granite
QAPF diagram with granite field highlighted in yellow
Mineral assemblage of igneous rocks
The Cheesewring, a granite tor in England
A granite peak at Huangshan, China
Pink granite at Hiltaba, South Australia (part of the Hiltaba Suite)
Granite with quartz veins at Gros la Tête cliff, Aride Island, Seychelles
Grus sand and granitoid it derived from
Granite dimension stone quarry in Taivassalo, Finland
Cleopatra's Needle, London
Granites (cut and polished surfaces)
The granite castle of Aulanko in Hämeenlinna, Finland
Curling stones
Granite was used for setts on the St. Louis riverfront and for the piers of the Eads Bridge (background)
The granite peaks of the Cordillera Paine in the Chilean Patagonia
alt=Half Dome, Yosemeite National Park|Half Dome, Yosemite National Park, is actually a granite arête and is a popular rock climbing destination
Rixö red granite quarry in Lysekil, Sweden
Granite in Auyuittuq National Park on Baffin Island, Canada
Granite in Paarl, South Africa

Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites, as described below.