Potato

potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potatoesSpudboiled potatoesroast potatoestattiesnew potatoseed potatoaloo
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.wikipedia
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Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava.

Solanaceae

nightshadenightshade familysolanaceous
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae, which includes such plants as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), as well as the food plants eggplant and tomato.
Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, and some are highly toxic, but many, including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, bell/chili peppers, and tobacco are widely used.

List of potato cultivars

different types of potatoesCarapotato cultivar
Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 1,000 different types of potatoes.
This is a list of potato varieties or cultivars.

Sweet potato

sweet potatoeskumarakūmara
The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related.
The sweet potato is only distantly related to the potato (Solanum tuberosum) and does not belong to the nightshade family, Solanaceae, but both families belong to the same taxonomic order, the Solanales.

Potato chip

potato chipscrispschips
Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped.
Potato chips or crisps are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy.

Solanine

α-solanine
Being a nightshade similar to tomatoes, the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine and are not fit for human consumption.
Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family within the genus Solanum, such as the potato (Solanum tuberosum), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the eggplant (Solanum melongena). It can occur naturally in any part of the plant, including the leaves, fruit, and tubers.

Seed

seedsseed coatkernel
After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds.
The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds".

Colorado potato beetle

potato beetleColorado beetlespotato beetles
'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. Other potato diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, black leg, powdery mildew, powdery scab and leafroll virus.Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle or the potato bug, is a major pest of potato crops.

Phytophthora infestans

potato blightlate blightpotato late blight
Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.
Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete or water mold, a microorganism that causes the serious potato and tomato disease known as late blight or potato blight. (Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is also often called "potato blight".) Late blight was a major culprit in the 1840s European, the 1845 Irish, and the 1846 Highland potato famines.

Columbian exchange

occurred with the discovery of the New Worldintroducedbrought over
Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century, part of the Columbian exchange.
Traders returned to Europe with maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, which became very important crops in Europe by the 18th century.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply.
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, or sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Amflora

The German chemical company BASF created the Amflora potato, which has been modified to contain antisense against the enzyme that drives synthesis of amylose, namely granule bound starch synthase.
"Amflora" potato plants produce pure amylopectin starch that is processed to waxy potato starch.

Tomato

tomatoestomato plantSolanum lycopersicum
Being a nightshade similar to tomatoes, the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine and are not fit for human consumption. Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae, which includes such plants as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), as well as the food plants eggplant and tomato.
In 1753, Linnaeus placed the tomato in the genus Solanum (alongside the potato) as Solanum lycopersicum.

Simplot

J. R. Simplot CompanySimplot InternationalSimplot Australia
In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.
During the early 1940s the business expanded, serving the military dehydrated onions and potatoes during World War II.

King Edward potato

King Edward
The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category (such as "red", russet, "white", or King Edward), growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings).
King Edward is a potato variety grown in the UK since 1902, making it one of the oldest varieties still grown commercially.

European Cultivated Potato Database

The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).
The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions.

Eggplant

brinjalauberginesaubergine
Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae, which includes such plants as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), as well as the food plants eggplant and tomato.
As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and the potato.

Lenape potato

Lenape
The Lenape variety was released in 1967 but was withdrawn in 1970 as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids.
Lenape (B5141-6) is a potato cultivar first released in 1967 and named after the Lenape Native American tribe, but it had to be pulled from the market in 1970 after findings of its high glycoalkaloid content.

Russet Burbank

russet potatorussetrusset potatoes
The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category (such as "red", russet, "white", or King Edward), growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings).
Russet Burbank is a potato cultivar with dark brown skin and few eyes that is the most widely grown potato in North America.

New Zealand English

New ZealandEnglishNew Zealand accent
Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English.
The word spud for potato, now common throughout the English-speaking world, originated in New Zealand English.

Powdery scab

scabpowdery scab tuber diseaseSpongospora subterranea
Other potato diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, black leg, powdery mildew, powdery scab and leafroll virus.Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites.
Powdery scab is a disease of potato tubers.

Glycemic index

glycaemic indexlow-glycemicglycemic indices
Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet.
processing (e.g., flour has a higher GI than the whole grain from which it is ground as grinding breaks the grain's protective layers) and the length of storage. Potatoes are a notable example, ranging from moderate to very high GI even within the same variety.

Potato virus Y

PVYpotato virusY
In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland, in areas where westerly winds prevent aphid attack and thus prevent spread of potato virus pathogens.
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses affecting potato production.

Potatoes of Chiloé

Chilean potatovariety of potatopotato varieties of Chiloé
The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile.
The Chiloé Archipelago is home to a wide variety of potatoes.

Waxy potato starch

Waxy potato varieties
Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful.
Waxy potato starch is a variety of commercially available starch composed almost entirely of amylopectin molecules, extracted from new potato varieties.