Pound (mass)

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Not to be confused with Pound sterling.wikipedia
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Number sign

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The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb; an alternative symbol is lb m (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔ or ″̶ (specifically for the apothecaries' pound).
The symbol has historically been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois – having been derived from the now-rare ℔.

Avoirdupois system

avoirdupoislbavoirdupois ounce
Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.
The avoirdupois system (abbreviated avdp) is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units.

Apothecaries' system

scrupleapothecaries' weightApothecary measure
The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb; an alternative symbol is lb m (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔ or ″̶ (specifically for the apothecaries' pound).
The English version of the system is closely related to the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being exactly the same in both.

Mass

inertial massgravitational massweight
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass

System of measurement

Systems of measurementsystem of unitsHistorical weights and measures
used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The Avoirdupois units of mass and weight differ for units larger than a pound (lb).

Imperial units

imperialimperial systemimperial unit
used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The Weights and Measures Act 1855 (18 & 19 Victoria C72) made the avoirdupois pound the primary unit of mass. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, and all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it.

Stone (unit)

ststonestones
When used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. "11 stone 4 pounds", rather than "158 pounds" (as done in the US), or "72 kilograms" as used elsewhere.
The stone or stone weight (abbreviation: st.) is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds (6.35029318 kg).

United States customary units

USUS customary unitsU.S. customary units
used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
There have historically been five different English systems of mass: tower, apothecaries', troy, avoirdupois, and metric.

Ounce

ozouncesoz.
Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.
Ounce derives from Latin uncia, a unit that was one-twelfth (1⁄12) of the Roman pound (libra).

Pound sterling

£GBPpounds
Historically, the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver.
The symbol derives from medieval Latin documents: the black-letter "L" was the abbreviation for libra, the basic Roman unit of weight, taken (incorrectly) as equivalent to a latter-day pound in weight.

Mass versus weight

weightdistinctionhistorical conflation of mass and weight
Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of mass and weight.
For example, in retail commerce, the "net weight" of products actually refers to mass, and is expressed in mass units such as grams or ounces (see also Pound: Use in commerce).

International yard and pound

International Yard and Pound Agreementinternational yardinternational agreement
Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound (symbol lb) has been defined as exactly 0.45359237 kg.
The agreement defined the yard as exactly 0.9144 meters and the pound as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms.

Penny

pencedpennies
This dates to 757 AD and was based on the silver penny.
The Carolingian penny was originally a 0.940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound.

Troy weight

troy ouncetroy ouncestroy pound
A troy pound is equal to 12 troy ounces and to 5,760 grains, that is exactly 373.2417216 grams.
An aes grave ("heavy bronze") weighed one pound.

European units of measurement directives

Directive 80/181/EEC80/181/EECEEC Directive 71/354/EEC
In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, and allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely.
In particular, some food sellers refused to comply, selling vegetable by the pound without a metric equivalent.

Grain (unit)

grainsgraingr
A troy pound is equal to 12 troy ounces and to 5,760 grains, that is exactly 373.2417216 grams. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.
In both British Imperial and U.S. customary units, there are precisely 7,000 grains per avoirdupois pound, and 5,760 grains per troy pound or apothecaries pound.

Pennyweight

dwtpencepennyweights
The merchants' pound (mercantile pound, libra mercantoria, or commercial pound) was considered to be composed of 25 rather than 20 Tower shillings of 12 pence.
At that time, the pound unit in use in England was the Tower pound, equal to 7,680 Tower grains (also known as wheat grains).

Pood

poodspudpudy
In 1899, the Russian pound was the basic unit of weight, and all other units of weight were formed from it; in partiticular, a zolotnik was 1/96 of a funt, and a pood was 40 funts.
Pood, is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt (фунт, Russian pound).

Gauge (firearms)

12 gaugegauge12-gauge
A similar definition, using lead balls, exists for determining the gauge of shotguns.
Gauge is determined from the weight of a solid sphere of lead that will fit the bore of the firearm and is expressed as the multiplicative inverse of the sphere's weight as a fraction of a pound, e.g., a one-twelfth pound lead ball fits a 12-gauge bore.

Mesures usuelles

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The livre usuelle (customary unit) was defined as 500 grams by the decree of 28 March 1812.

Pound (force)

lbflb f pound-force
This accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-mass and pound-force.
Pound-force should not be confused with foot-pound, a unit of energy, or pound-foot, a unit of torque, that may be written as "lbf⋅ft"; nor should these be confused with pound-mass (symbol: lb), often simply called pound, which is a unit of mass.

Catty

cattiesjinkati
Though not from the same linguistic origin, the Chinese jīn (斤, also known as "catty") has a modern definition of exactly 500 grams, divided into 10 liǎng .
The catty is traditionally equivalent to around 1⅓ pound avoirdupois, formalised as 604.78982 grams in Hong Kong, 604.79 grams in Malaysia and 604.8 grams in Singapore.

Zolotnik

In 1899, the Russian pound was the basic unit of weight, and all other units of weight were formed from it; in partiticular, a zolotnik was 1/96 of a funt, and a pood was 40 funts.
The Russian pound was known as the funt.

Obsolete Russian units of measurement

sazhendesyatinadesiatina
The Russian pound (Фунт, funt) is an obsolete Russian unit of measurement of mass. It is equal to 409.51718 grams.

Carronade

carronadesgunnadeCannonades
See carronade.
Carronades were manufactured in the usual naval gun sizes: 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 32-, 42-, and 68-pounder versions are known.