# Pound (mass)

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Not to be confused with Pound sterling.wikipedia
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### Number sign

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The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb; an alternative symbol is lb m (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔ or ″̶ (specifically for the apothecaries' pound).
The symbol # is most commonly known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign. The symbol has historically been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois (having been derived from the now-rare ℔).

### Avoirdupois system

avoirdupoislbavoirdupois ounce
Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.
The avoirdupois system (abbreviated avdp) is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units.

### Mass

inertial massgravitational massweight
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass
the pound (lb) is a unit of both mass and force, used mainly in the United States (about 0.45 kg or 4.5 N). In scientific contexts where pound (force) and pound (mass) need to be distinguished, SI units are usually used instead.

### Apothecaries' system

scruplescruplesapothecaries
The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb; an alternative symbol is lb m (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔ or ″̶ (specifically for the apothecaries' pound).
The English version of the system is closely related to the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being exactly the same in both.

### System of measurement

system of unitssystems of measurementmeasurement system
used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The Avoirdupois units of mass and weight differ for units larger than a pound (lb).

### Imperial units

imperialimperial systemimperial unit
used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The Weights and Measures Act 1855 (18 & 19 Victoria C72) made the avoirdupois pound the primary unit of mass. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, and all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it.

### Stone (unit)

ststonestones
When used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. "11 stone 4 pounds", rather than "158 pounds" (as done in the US), or "72 kilograms" as used elsewhere.
The stone or stone weight (abbreviation: st.) is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds (6.35029318 kg).

### United States customary units

USUS customaryU.S. customary
used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
There have historically been five different English systems of mass: tower, apothecaries', troy, avoirdupois, and metric.

### Ounce

ozouncesoz.
Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.
Ounce derives from Latin uncia, a unit that was one-twelfth (1⁄12) of the Roman pound (libra).

### International yard and pound

international agreementInternational Avoirdupois Poundinternational yard
Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound (symbol lb) has been defined as exactly 0.45359237 kg.
The agreement defined the yard as exactly 0.9144 meters and the pound as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms.

### Mass versus weight

weightdistinctionhistorical conflation of mass and weight
Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of mass and weight.
For example, in retail commerce, the "net weight" of products actually refers to mass, and is expressed in mass units such as grams or ounces (see also Pound: Use in commerce).

### Penny

dpencepennies
The Carolingian penny was originally a .940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound.

### Pound sterling

£poundspounds sterling
Historically, the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver.
The pound was a unit of account in Anglo-Saxon England, equal to 240 silver pennies and equivalent to one pound weight of silver.

### Troy weight

troy ouncetroy ouncestroy pound
A troy pound is equal to 12 troy ounces and to 5,760 grains, that is exactly 373.2417216 grams.
An aes grave ("heavy bronze") weighed one pound.

### European units of measurement directives

Directive 80/181/EEC80/181/EECEEC Directive 71/354/EEC
In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, and allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely.
A number of imperial units including the pound, ounce, yard, foot, inch, gallon and pint could continue to be used until the end of 1989.

### Grain (unit)

grainsgraingr
A troy pound is equal to 12 troy ounces and to 5,760 grains, that is exactly 373.2417216 grams. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.
In both British Imperial and U.S. customary units, there are precisely 7,000 grains per avoirdupois pound, and 5,760 grains per troy pound or apothecaries pound.

### Pennyweight

dwtpencepennyweights
The merchants' pound (mercantile pound, libra mercantoria, or commercial pound) was considered to be composed of 25 rather than 20 Tower shillings of 12 pence.
At that time, the pound in use was the Tower pound, equal to 7,680 Tower grains (also known as wheat grains).

### Gauge (firearms)

12 gaugegaugebore
A similar definition, using lead balls, exists for determining the gauge of shotguns.
Gauge is determined from the weight of a solid sphere of lead that will fit the bore of the firearm and is expressed as the multiplicative inverse of the sphere's weight as a fraction of a pound, e.g., a one-twelfth pound lead ball fits a 12-gauge bore.

### Mesures usuelles

French'' feetmetric systemPied
The livre usuelle (customary unit) was defined as 500 grams by the decree of 28 March 1812.
The livre, (pound), was defined as 500 grams, divided into 16 onces, (ounces), each once being divided into 8 gros. Each gros being thought of as being composed of 72 grains, whose name is the same as in English. Hence, the livre was 9216 grains. The livre and once were about 10% larger than their English counterparts, while the grain was 17% less than its English counterpart. It can be noted that the metric livre, although not legal, is still commonly used in daily life in France in the 21st century.

### Catty

cattiesjinkati
Though not from the same linguistic origin, the Chinese jīn (斤, also known as "catty") has a modern definition of exactly 500 grams, divided into 10 liǎng .
The catty is traditionally equivalent to around 1⅓ pound avoirdupois, formalised as 604.78982 grams in Hong Kong, 604.79 grams in Malaysia and 604.8 grams in Singapore.

### Pound (force)

lbflb f pounds-force
This accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-mass and pound-force.
Pound-force should not be confused with foot-pound, a unit of energy, or pound-foot, a unit of torque, that may be written as "lbf⋅ft"; nor should these be confused with pound-mass (symbol: lb), often simply called pound, which is a unit of mass.

Carronades were manufactured in the usual naval gun sizes: 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 32-, 42-, and 68-pounder versions are known.