Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmaticsuseabovecommon sense and, most commonly, contextcommunicative-pragmaticdiscourse-pragmaticpracticalpragmatic competence
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.

Implicature

conversational implicatureimpliedImplicit
Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.
In pragmatics, a subdiscipline of linguistics, an implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Philosophy of language

languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference
Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.
Further, syntactic propositions are arranged into 'discourse' or 'narrative' structures, which also encode meanings through pragmatics like temporal relations and pronominals.

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others.

Historical pragmatics

Meanwhile, historical pragmatics has also come into being.
Historical pragmatics is the study of linguistic pragmatics over time.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.
Linguistic anthropologists often draw on related fields including sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive linguistics, semiotics, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis.

Michael Silverstein

Silverstein
Michael Silverstein has argued that "nonreferential" or "pure" indices do not contribute to an utterance's referential meaning but instead "signal some particular value of one or more contextual variables."
Over the course of his career he has drawn together research on linguistic pragmatics, sociolinguistics, language ideology, semiotic anthropology and grammatical theory into a comprehensive account of language in culture.

Sociolinguistics

sociolinguisticsociolinguistsociolinguists
There is considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics, since both share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by usage in a speech community.
Sociolinguistics overlaps considerably with pragmatics.

Utterance

utterancesexpressionexpressions
As defined in linguistics, a sentence is an abstract entity—a string of words divorced from non-linguistic context—as opposed to an utterance, which is a concrete example of a speech act in a specific context.
Grammar/syntax is another feature of language in general but also utterances, and pragmatics means that when utterances are spoken or written the meaning is not literal, as in sarcasm.

Lexicon

lexicallexicallylexicons
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.
They can be interpreted through analogy, common sense and, most commonly, context.

Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech act
Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology. As defined in linguistics, a sentence is an abstract entity—a string of words divorced from non-linguistic context—as opposed to an utterance, which is a concrete example of a speech act in a specific context.
Pragmatics

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
There is considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics, since both share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by usage in a speech community.
Pragmatics

Phatic expression

phaticphatic communion
The Phatic Function is language for the sake of interaction and is therefore associated with the Contact factor. The Phatic Function can be observed in greetings and casual discussions of the weather, particularly with strangers.
is asked in a sincere, concerned manner and does in fact anticipate a detailed response regarding the respondent's present state, this needs to be pragmatically inferred from context and intonation.

A Thousand Plateaus

Mille PlateauxA Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and SchizophreniaMillePlateauxMedia
Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari discuss linguistic pragmatics in the fourth chapter of A Thousand Plateaus ("November 20, 1923--Postulates of Linguistics").
Deleuze and Guattari discuss concepts such as the rhizome, performativity in language, smooth and striated space, the State apparatus, face and faciality, the Body without Organs, minority languages, binary branching structures in language, deterritorialization and reterritorialization, pragmatics, lines of flight, assemblages, becoming, strata, War Machines, signs, and coding.

Performativity

performativeperformperformance theory
In Excitable Speech she extends her theory of performativity to hate speech and censorship, arguing that censorship necessarily strengthens any discourse it tries to suppress and therefore, since the state has sole power to define hate speech legally, it is the state that makes hate speech performative.
In this sense, performativity is a function of the pragmatics of language.

Code-switching

code-switchcode switchingcode switch
For example, the study of code switching directly relates to pragmatics, since a switch in code effects a shift in pragmatic force.
Congruence between Embedded Language content morphemes and Matrix Language content morphemes is realized in terms of their discourse or pragmatic functions.

Dan Sperber

SperberSperber, Dan
Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson's relevance theory
His most influential work has been in the fields of cognitive anthropology and linguistic pragmatics: developing, with British psychologist Deirdre Wilson, relevance theory in the latter; and an approach to cultural evolution known as the 'epidemiology of representations' in the former.

Geoffrey Leech

Leech, GeoffreyG. N. LeechLeech
Geoffrey Leech's politeness maxims
His main academic interests were English grammar, corpus linguistics, stylistics, pragmatics and semantics.

Universal pragmatics

Formal Pragmatics, the study of those aspects of meaning and use for which context of use is an important factor, by using the methods and goals of formal semantics.
As an interdisciplinary subject, universal pragmatics draws upon material from a large number of fields, from pragmatics, semantics, semiotics, informal logic, and the philosophy of language, through social philosophy, sociology, and symbolic interactionism, to ethics, especially discourse ethics, and on to epistemology and the philosophy of mind.

Charles Sanders Peirce

PeirceC. S. PeirceCharles Peirce
A second way to define the signified and signifier relationship is C.S. Peirce's Peircean Trichotomy. The components of the trichotomy are the following:
Pragmatics

Relevance theory

relevance theoristsrelevance
Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson's relevance theory
Relevance theory is a framework for understanding utterance interpretation first proposed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson and used within cognitive linguistics and pragmatics.

Presupposition

presuppositionspresupposeassumptions
Presupposition
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.

Indexicality

indexicalindexindexicals
Indexical meaning, on the other hand, is dependent on the context of the utterance and has rules of use.
Peirce's concept has been adopted and extended by several twentieth-century academic traditions, including those of linguistic pragmatics, linguistic anthropology, and Anglo-American philosophy of language.

Cooperative principle

conversational maximconversational maximsmaxim of quantity
Paul Grice's cooperative principle and conversational maxims
As phrased by Paul Grice, who introduced it in his pragmatic theory,