Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism

Prague ProcessPrague DeclarationEuropean Conscience and Communism
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism."wikipedia
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Václav Havel

Vaclav HavelHavelPresident Havel
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism." In June 2008, Shimon Samuels of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre accused signatories Václav Havel and Vytautas Landsbergis of having "anti-Semitic, racist and Holocaust distortionist motives."
Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.

Joachim Gauck

President Joachim GauckPresident GauckPresident of Germany
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism."
Gauck was a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, together with Václav Havel and other statesmen, and of the Declaration on Crimes of Communism.

Platform of European Memory and Conscience

European Platform of Memory and Conscience
On 14 October 2011, the Platform of European Memory and Conscience, an EU educational project to raise awareness about totalitarian crimes and to combat intolerance, extremism, and anti-democratic movements, was established by the governments of the Visegrád Group and a number of European government institutions and NGOs, as an initiative of the Polish EU presidency and following decisions by the European Parliament and the EU Council supporting the project.
The initiative was originally proposed by the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes and the Government of the Czech Republic, and the 2008 Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism; on 2 April 2009, the European Parliament passed a resolution in favour of the initiative, and in June 2009, the Council of the European Union welcomed the initiative.

Zbigniew Brzezinski

Zbigniew BrzezińskiBrzezinskiBrzezinski, Zbigniew
The conference on European Conscience and Communism received letters of support from president Nicolas Sarkozy (France), Lady Margaret Thatcher (UK), Secretary of State Jason Kenney (Canada) and former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski (United States).
He was a supporter of the Prague Process.

European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism

Black Ribbon Daya day of remembranceDay of Remembrance of the Victims of Fascism and Communism
To date, the most visible proposal set forth by the declaration was the adoption of the European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism (known as the International Black Ribbon Day in some countries), adopted by the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, as the official international remembrance day for victims of totalitarian regimes.
The date of 23 August was adopted as an official day of remembrance for victims of totalitarianism by international bodies and various countries after it was proposed by the 2008 Prague Declaration, initiated by the Czech government and signed by (among others) Václav Havel, Joachim Gauck, Vytautas Landsbergis, Emanuelis Zingeris, and Łukasz Kamiński on 3 June 2008.

Ari Vatanen

A. Vatanen
The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
He is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

Vytautas Landsbergis

President LandsbergisPresident Vytautas Landsbergis
In June 2008, Shimon Samuels of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre accused signatories Václav Havel and Vytautas Landsbergis of having "anti-Semitic, racist and Holocaust distortionist motives."
He is a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and a member of the international advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.

Zuzana Roithová

Roithová
The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
Having previously served as Minister of Health, Senator and as Chair of the European Movement in the Czech Republic, she is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and a member of the Reconciliation of European Histories Group.

Alexandr Vondra

The declaration concluded the conference European Conscience and Communism, an international conference that took place at the Czech Senate from 2 to 3 June 2008, hosted by the [[Committee on Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions (Czech Republic)|Senate Committee on Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions]], under the auspices of Alexandr Vondra, Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic for European Affairs, and organised by Jana Hybášková MEP and Senator Martin Mejstřík in co-operation with the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes and the European People's Party's Robert Schuman Foundation.
He participated at the international conference European Conscience and Communism, which took place under his patronage at the Czech Senate in Prague in June 2008.

Peter Šťastný

Peter StastnyPeterŠťastný
The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
He is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

Martin Mejstřík

The declaration concluded the conference European Conscience and Communism, an international conference that took place at the Czech Senate from 2 to 3 June 2008, hosted by the [[Committee on Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions (Czech Republic)|Senate Committee on Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions]], under the auspices of Alexandr Vondra, Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic for European Affairs, and organised by Jana Hybášková MEP and Senator Martin Mejstřík in co-operation with the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes and the European People's Party's Robert Schuman Foundation.
Mejstřík is a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (and the co-organizer, with Jana Hybášková, of its preceding conference) and the Declaration on Crimes of Communism.

Reconciliation of European Histories Group

These developments have been referred to as the "Prague Process" by the Reconciliation of European Histories Group, an all-party group in the European Parliament chaired by Sandra Kalniete.
The Reconciliation of European Histories Group is an informal all-party group in the European Parliament involved in promoting the Prague Process in all of Europe, aimed at coming to terms with the totalitarian past in many countries of Europe.

Jana Hybášková

The declaration concluded the conference European Conscience and Communism, an international conference that took place at the Czech Senate from 2 to 3 June 2008, hosted by the [[Committee on Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions (Czech Republic)|Senate Committee on Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions]], under the auspices of Alexandr Vondra, Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic for European Affairs, and organised by Jana Hybášková MEP and Senator Martin Mejstřík in co-operation with the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes and the European People's Party's Robert Schuman Foundation.
She is a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and the co-organizer (with Senator Martin Mejstřík) of its preceding conference.

Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis

Girts KristovskisGirts Valdis KristovskisĢ. V. Kristovskis
The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
He is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and co-sponsored the [[European Parliament resolution of 2 April 2009 on European conscience and totalitarianism]].

József Szájer

Jozsef Szajer
The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
He is also the founding Member of Szabadság kör (2007), signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

Margaret Thatcher

ThatcherBaroness ThatcherThatcherite
The conference on European Conscience and Communism received letters of support from president Nicolas Sarkozy (France), Lady Margaret Thatcher (UK), Secretary of State Jason Kenney (Canada) and former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski (United States).
Thatcher was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.

Nickolay Mladenov

Nikolai MladenovNickolay Evtimov Mladenov
The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
Mladenov is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

László Surján

The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
He was a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

Sandra Kalniete

These developments have been referred to as the "Prague Process" by the Reconciliation of European Histories Group, an all-party group in the European Parliament chaired by Sandra Kalniete.
Kalniete is also the chairperson of the Reconciliation of European Histories Group, an all-party group in the European Parliament involved in promoting the Prague Process.

Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism

totalitarian twinsbarbarities of Hitler's and Stalinboth the Nazi and Communist totalitarian regimes
Central to the declaration is the call for an "all-European understanding that both the Nazi and Communist totalitarian regimes [...] should be considered to be the main disasters, which blighted the 20th century."
The 2008 Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, initiated by the Czech government and signed by figures such as Václav Havel, called for "a common approach regarding crimes of totalitarian regimes, inter alia Communist regimes" and for

European Parliament resolution of 2 April 2009 on European conscience and totalitarianism

2009 resolution on European conscience and totalitarianismresolution on European conscience and totalitarianism
The declaration or its proposals have received support from the European Parliament, notably in its [[European Parliament resolution of 2 April 2009 on European conscience and totalitarianism|2009 resolution on European conscience and totalitarianism]], from other bodies of the European Union, from the governments of multiple European countries affected by communist totalitarian rule and Soviet occupation, and from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
The European Parliament resolution was preceded by the Council of Europe resolution 1481, the European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes, the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and the [[European Public Hearing on European Conscience and Crimes of Totalitarian Communism: 20 Years After]], as well as by the European Parliament's 2008 proclamation of the European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism.

Inese Vaidere

The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
Vaidere is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

Michael Gahler

The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
He is a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.

Gisela Kallenbach

The Declaration was subsequently also signed by around 50 members of the European Parliament and other politicians from around the world, including Els de Groen, Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis, György Schöpflin, Gisela Kallenbach, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Michael Gahler, Zuzana Roithová, Inese Vaidere, Hans-Josef Fell, Nickolay Mladenov, József Szájer, Peter Stastny, Ari Vatanen, Wojciech Roszkowski, László Tőkés, Charlotte Cederschiöld, László Surján, and Milan Zver.
She is involved with the Zeitzeugenportal, an initiative of the Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur, a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and also co-organized (with Milan Horáček) a public hearing in the European Parliament on totalitarian regimes in support of the declaration.

European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes

Crimes Committed by Totalitarian RegimesEuropean Public Hearing on "Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes
The declaration was preceded by the European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes.