Praxeology

praxeologicalhuman actionPraxiologybased onpraxeologicpraxeologicallypraxeologistspraxiological knowledge
Praxeology or praxiology is the study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing and unintentional behavior.wikipedia
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Ludwig von Mises

MisesLudwig MisesMisesian
French social philosopher Alfred Espinas gave the term its modern meaning, and its study was developed independently by two principal groups: the Austrian school, in which a praxeological approach was developed by Ludwig von Mises, and the Polish school created by Tadeusz Kotarbiński. Ludwig von Mises was influenced by several theories in forming his work on praxeology, including Immanuel Kant's works, Max Weber's work on methodological individualism, and Carl Menger's development of the subjective theory of value.
He is best known for his work on praxeology, a study of human choice and action.

Tadeusz Kotarbiński

Tadeusz KotarbinskiKotarbińskiKotarbiński, Tadeusz
French social philosopher Alfred Espinas gave the term its modern meaning, and its study was developed independently by two principal groups: the Austrian school, in which a praxeological approach was developed by Ludwig von Mises, and the Polish school created by Tadeusz Kotarbiński.
Kotarbiński also contributed significantly to the development of praxeology.

Action (philosophy)

actionactionsactivity
Praxeology or praxiology is the study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing and unintentional behavior.

Murray Rothbard

Murray N. RothbardRothbardianRothbard, Murray N.
After the emigration of Mises to America his pupil Murray Rothbard defended the praxeological approach.
Rothbard rejected mainstream economic methodologies and instead embraced the praxeology of his most important intellectual precursor, Ludwig von Mises.

Methodological individualism

individualistatomistic individual conceptionbasic units
Ludwig von Mises was influenced by several theories in forming his work on praxeology, including Immanuel Kant's works, Max Weber's work on methodological individualism, and Carl Menger's development of the subjective theory of value.

Thymology

In praxeology, thymology is the study of those human aspects that precede or cause purposeful human behavior.

Action axiom

truths
According to its theorists, with the action axiom as the starting point, it is possible to draw conclusions about human behavior that are both objective and universal.
The action-axiom is the basis of praxeology in the Austrian School, and it is the proposition that all specimens of the species Homo sapiens, the Homo agens, purposely utilize means over a period of time in order to achieve desired ends.

Catallactics

Catallactics is a praxeological theory, the term catallaxy being used by Friedrich Hayek to describe "the order brought about by the mutual adjustment of many individual economies in a market."

Austrian School

Austrian School of EconomicsAustrian economicsAustrian
French social philosopher Alfred Espinas gave the term its modern meaning, and its study was developed independently by two principal groups: the Austrian school, in which a praxeological approach was developed by Ludwig von Mises, and the Polish school created by Tadeusz Kotarbiński. It was also used by Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1933), Russian Marxist Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938) during the Second International Congress of History of Science and Technology in London (in 1931), and Polish scholar Oscar Lange (1904–1965) in 1959, and later.
For example, Ludwig von Mises organized his version of the subjectivist approach, which he called "praxeology", in a book published in English as Human Action in 1949.

Reflex

reflexesreflex actioninvoluntary action
Praxeology or praxiology is the study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing and unintentional behavior.

Alfred Espinas

Alfred Victor Espinas
French social philosopher Alfred Espinas gave the term its modern meaning, and its study was developed independently by two principal groups: the Austrian school, in which a praxeological approach was developed by Ludwig von Mises, and the Polish school created by Tadeusz Kotarbiński. The modern definition of the word was first given by Alfred V. Espinas (1844–1922), the French philosopher and sociologist; he was the forerunner of the Polish school of the science of efficient action.

Clemens Timpler

However, the term was used at least once previously (with a slight spelling difference), in 1608, by Clemens Timpler in his Philosophiae practicae systema methodicum:

Robert Flint

It was later mentioned by Robert Flint in 1904 in a review of Bourdeau's Théorie des sciences.

Efficiency

efficientefficientlyefficiencies
The modern definition of the word was first given by Alfred V. Espinas (1844–1922), the French philosopher and sociologist; he was the forerunner of the Polish school of the science of efficient action.

Charles Mercier

Charles Arthur MercierMercier, Charles AMercier, Charles Arthur
With a different spelling, the word was used by the English psychologist Charles Arthur Mercier (in 1911), and proposed by Knight Dunlap to John B. Watson as a better name for his behaviorism.

Knight Dunlap

With a different spelling, the word was used by the English psychologist Charles Arthur Mercier (in 1911), and proposed by Knight Dunlap to John B. Watson as a better name for his behaviorism.

John B. Watson

WatsonJohn Broadus WatsonJohn Watson
With a different spelling, the word was used by the English psychologist Charles Arthur Mercier (in 1911), and proposed by Knight Dunlap to John B. Watson as a better name for his behaviorism.

Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
With a different spelling, the word was used by the English psychologist Charles Arthur Mercier (in 1911), and proposed by Knight Dunlap to John B. Watson as a better name for his behaviorism.

Zing-Yang Kuo

Guo RenyuanKuo Zing-yang
But the Chinese physiologist of behavior, Zing-Yang Kuo (b.

William McDougall (psychologist)

William McDougallMcDougallW. McDougall
It was also used by William McDougall (in 1928 and later).

Eugen Slutsky

Eugene SlutskySlutskySlutsky, Eugen
Several economists, such as the Ukrainian, Eugene Slutsky (1926) used it in his attempt to base economics on a theory of action.

Nikolai Bukharin

BukharinNikolay BukharinBukharin, Nikolai
It was also used by Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1933), Russian Marxist Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938) during the Second International Congress of History of Science and Technology in London (in 1931), and Polish scholar Oscar Lange (1904–1965) in 1959, and later.

Second International

SecondSocialist InternationalSecond Socialist International
It was also used by Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1933), Russian Marxist Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938) during the Second International Congress of History of Science and Technology in London (in 1931), and Polish scholar Oscar Lange (1904–1965) in 1959, and later.

Oskar R. Lange

Oskar LangeOscar LangeOskar Ryszard Lange
It was also used by Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1933), Russian Marxist Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938) during the Second International Congress of History of Science and Technology in London (in 1931), and Polish scholar Oscar Lange (1904–1965) in 1959, and later.