Praxinoscope

praxinoscopes
The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope.wikipedia
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Animation

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The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope.
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.

Charles-Émile Reynaud

Émile ReynaudEmile Reynaud
It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud.
Charles-Émile Reynaud (8 December 1844 – 9 January 1918) was a French inventor, responsible for the praxinoscope (an animation device patented in 1877 that improved on the zoetrope) and the first projected animated films.

Théâtre Optique

In 1888 Reynaud developed the Théâtre Optique, an improved version capable of projecting images on a screen from a longer roll of pictures.
The Théâtre Optique was a further development of the projection version of Reynaud's praxinoscope animation toy, which had already been covered in the first praxinoscope patent as registered on 30 August 1877.

Zoetrope

3D zoetropemoving picture advertisingthree-dimensional zoetrope
The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope.
Émile Reynaud's 1877 praxinoscope was an improvement on the zoetrope that became popular toward the end of the 19th century.

Proscenium

proscenium archproscenium theatreproscenium stage
When the set was assembled inside the unfolded box, the viewer looked through a rectangular slot in the front, onto a plate with a transparent mirror surrounded by a printed proscenium.

Société française de photographie

French Photographic SocietySociete Francaise de PhotographieMusée de la Photographie
He presented a praxinoscope projection device at the Société française de photographie on 4 June 1880, but did not market his praxinoscope a projection before 1882.

Auguste and Louis Lumière

Lumière brothersLumièreLouis Lumière
It was very successful for several years, until it was eclipsed in popularity by the photographic film projector of the Lumière brothers.

Phonograph record

vinyl7LP
The Red Raven Magic Mirror and its special children's phonograph records, introduced in the US in 1956, was a 20th-century adaptation of the praxinoscope.

Revolutions per minute

rpmr.p.m.RPMs
It was placed over the record player's spindle and rotated along with the 78 rpm record, which had a very large label with a sequence of sixteen interwoven animation frames arrayed around its center.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The word praxinoscope translates roughly as "action viewer", from the Greek roots πραξι- (confer πρᾶξις "action") and scop- (confer σκοπός "watcher").

History of film

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History of film

History of French animation

Franceold French animations
The first pictured movie was from Frenchman Émile Reynaud, who created the praxinoscope, an advanced successor to the zoetrope that could project animated films up to 16 frames long, and films of about 500~600 pictures, projected on its own Théâtre Optique at Musée Grévin in Paris, France, on 28 October 1892.

List of Power Rangers Samurai characters

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When a disk is attached to it, the Spin Sword acts as a praxinoscope and it powers up depending on the disk itself.

Picture disc

7" picture disc12" picture disc7" shaped picture disc
They featured a sequence of sixteen interwoven animation frames arrayed around the center and were to be played at 78 rpm on a turntable with a short spindle, on which a small sixteen-mirrored device, a variety of the praxinoscope, was placed.

1870s in film

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1877 – French inventor Charles-Émile Reynaud improved on the Zoetrope idea by placing mirrors at the center of the drum. He called his invention the Praxinoscope. Reynaud developed other versions of the Praxinoscope, too, including a Praxinoscope Theatre (where the device was enclosed in a viewing box) and the Projecting Praxinoscope. Eventually he created the "Théâtre Optique", a large machine based on the Praxinoscope, but was able to project longer animated strips. In the United States, the McLoughlin Bros. from New York released in 1879 a simplified (and unauthorized) copy of Reynaud's invention under the name "Whirligig of Life".

New media art

media artmedia artsnew media
The origins of new media art can be traced to the moving photographic inventions of the late 19th century such as the zoetrope (1834), the praxinoscope (1877) and Eadweard Muybridge's zoopraxiscope (1879).

List of French inventions and discoveries

French inventor
The Praxinoscope of Charles-Émile Reynaud (1877) is an animation device intermediary between the zoetrope and the cinema.

History of film technology

film technologymotion picture engineering and technologyprecursor to cinema
Stampfer also mentioned several possible variations of his stroboscopic invention, including a cylinder (similar to the later zoetrope) as well as a long, looped strip of paper or canvas stretched around two parallel rollers (somewhat similar to film) and a theater-like frame (much like the later praxinoscope theatre).

Motion graphics

motion graphicbroadcast designvideos
Motion graphics are usually displayed via electronic media technology, but may also be displayed via manual powered technology (e.g. thaumatrope, phenakistoscope, stroboscope, zoetrope, praxinoscope, flip book).

History of animation

animation historiananimation historyAnimation
French inventor Charles-Émile Reynaud developed the praxinoscope in 1876 and patented it in 1877.

Animated cartoon

animatedanimated shortcartoons
The phenakistoscope (1832), zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877), as well as the common flip book, were early animation devices to produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film.

19th century in film

186018611862
1870s – French inventor Charles-Émile Reynaud improved on the Zoetrope idea by placing mirrors at the center of the drum. He called his invention the Praxinoscope. Reynaud developed other versions of the Praxinoscope too, including a Praxinoscope Theatre, where the device was enclosed in a viewing box, and the Projecting Praxinoscope. Eventually he created the "Théâtre Optique", a large machine based on the Praxinoscope, but able to project longer animated strips. In the United States, the McLoughlin Bros. from New York released in 1879 a simplified (and unauthorized) copy of Reynaud's invention under the name "Whirligig of Life".