Prayer

prayprayersprayingprayedpraysprayer groupdevotionalDevotionsdaily prayersThe Prayer
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication.wikipedia
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Invocation

invokeinvokedinvocations
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication.

Supplication

suppliantsupplicantsupplicates
In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity (a god), or a deified ancestor.
Supplication (also known as petitioning) is a form of prayer, wherein one party humbly or earnestly asks another party to provide something, either for the party who is doing the supplicating (e.g., "Please spare my life.") or on behalf of someone else.

Hymn

hymnsChristian hymnhymnody
Prayer may take the form of a hymn, incantation, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

Efficacy of prayer

power of prayerbenefits of prayerhealing power of prayer
The efficacy of prayer in faith healing has been evaluated in numerous studies, with contradictory results.
The varied religious traditions of the world have complex understandings of the nature, function and expectations of prayer.

Incantation

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Prayer may take the form of a hymn, incantation, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person. More generally, prayer can also have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, and in comparative religion is closely associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells.
An incantation can also be performed during ceremonial rituals or prayers.

Grace (prayer)

gracesaying gracea prayer over a table
There are morning and evening prayers, graces said over meals, and reverent physical gestures.
A grace is a short prayer or thankful phrase said before or after eating.

Trance

trance statesystemic trancetrance states
This is usually accomplished through a shaman who, through a trance, gains access to the spirit world and then shows the spirits' thoughts to the people.
The term trance may be associated with hypnosis, meditation, magic, flow, and prayer.

Prostration

prostrateprostratedprostrating
Muslims practice salat (kneeling and prostration) in their prayers.
Major world religions employ prostration as an act of submissiveness or worship to a supreme being or other worshiped entity (i.e. God), as in the sajdah of the Islamic prayer, salat.

Magical thinking

magicmagicalmagically
In the loosest sense, in the form of magical thinking combined with animism, prayer has been argued as representing a human cultural universal, which would have been present since the emergence of behavioral modernity, by anthropologists such as Sir Edward Burnett Tylor and Sir James George Frazer.
In religion, folk religion, and superstitious beliefs, the posited causality is between religious ritual, prayer, sacrifice, or the observance of a taboo, and an expected benefit or recompense.

Liturgy

liturgicalliturgiesliturgist
Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, and it can be performed alone or in groups.
Jewish liturgy is the prayer recitations that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

Meditation

meditativemeditatemeditating
More generally, prayer can also have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, and in comparative religion is closely associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells.
Christian meditation is sometimes taken to mean the middle level in a broad three stage characterization of prayer: it then involves more reflection than first level vocal prayer, but is more structured than the multiple layers of contemplation in Christianity.

Æcerbot

Erce
In stanza9 of the poem Oddrúnargrátr, a prayer is made to "kind wights, Frigg and Freyja, and many gods In chapter 21 of Jómsvíkinga saga, wishing to turn the tide of the Battle of Hjörungavágr, Haakon Sigurdsson eventually finds his prayers answered by the goddesses Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa. Folk religion in the medieval period produced syncretisms between pre-Christian and Christian traditions. An example is the 11th-century Anglo-Saxon charm Æcerbot for the fertility of crops and land, or the medical Wið færstice. The 8th-century Wessobrunn Prayer has been proposed as a Christianized pagan prayer and compared to the pagan Völuspá and the Merseburg Incantations, the latter recorded in the 9th or 10th century but of much older traditional origins.
The charm consists of a partially Christianized prayer and a day-long ritual that began at night with four sods taken from the field, to the root-mats of which a poultice was applied in the form of yeast, honey, oil and milk mixed with parts of all the good herbs that grew, save buckwheat and woody plants.

Edward McKendree Bounds

E M BoundsE. M. BoundsE.M. Bounds
Among Christian theologians, E.M. Bounds stated the educational purpose of prayer in every chapter of his book, The Necessity of Prayer.
He is known for writing 11 books, nine of which focused on the subject of prayer.

Fasting

fastfastsfasted
One less noticeable act related to prayer is fasting.
Some other Protestants consider fasting, usually accompanied by prayer, to be an important part of their personal spiritual experience, apart from any liturgical tradition.

Mysticism

mysticmysticalmystics
It is also widespread in Sufi Islam, and in some forms of mysticism.
The term illumination is derived from the Latin illuminatio, applied to Christian prayer in the 15th century.

Christian prayer

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The People of God are challenged to include Christian prayer in their everyday life, even in the busy struggles of marriage as it brings people closer to God.
Prayer is an important activity in Christianity, and there are several different forms of Christian prayer.

Valkyrie

ValkyriesGölValkyr
This prayer is recorded in stanzas2 and3 of the poem Sigrdrífumál, compiled in the 13th century Poetic Edda from earlier traditional sources, where the valkyrie Sigrdrífa prays to the gods and the earth after being woken by the hero Sigurd.
The woman recites a heathen prayer in two stanzas.

Shema Yisrael

ShemaBedtime ShemaV'ahavta
The most important Jewish prayers are the Shema Yisrael ("Hear O Israel") and the Amidah ("the standing prayer").
Observant Jews consider the Shema to be the most important part of the prayer service in Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation as a mitzvah (religious commandment).

Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa

IrpaÞorgerðrÞorgerðr Hölgabrúðr
In stanza9 of the poem Oddrúnargrátr, a prayer is made to "kind wights, Frigg and Freyja, and many gods In chapter 21 of Jómsvíkinga saga, wishing to turn the tide of the Battle of Hjörungavágr, Haakon Sigurdsson eventually finds his prayers answered by the goddesses Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa. Folk religion in the medieval period produced syncretisms between pre-Christian and Christian traditions. An example is the 11th-century Anglo-Saxon charm Æcerbot for the fertility of crops and land, or the medical Wið færstice. The 8th-century Wessobrunn Prayer has been proposed as a Christianized pagan prayer and compared to the pagan Völuspá and the Merseburg Incantations, the latter recorded in the 9th or 10th century but of much older traditional origins.
On the island, Haakon falls to his knees, and, while looking northward, prays to what is described as his patron goddess, Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr.

List of gestures

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Their posture is similar to the "flight" posture, a crouching posture with raised hands, observed in schizophrenic patients and related to the universal "hands up" gesture of surrender.

Epistle of James

JamesBook of JamesLetter of James
Further, the Book of James says that the lack of blessings in life results from a failure to pray.
He encourages and implores believers to humbly live by godly, rather than worldly wisdom and to pray in all situations.

Methodism

MethodistMethodist ChurchMethodists
While Kant held that moral experience justified religious beliefs, John Wesley in addition to stressing individual moral exertion thought that the religious experiences in the Methodist movement (paralleling the Romantic Movement) were foundational to religious commitment as a way of life.
John Wesley held that God also imparted grace by other established means such as public and private prayer, Scripture reading, study and preaching, public worship, and fasting.

Rosary

rosariesrosary beadsHoly Rosary
In the Western or Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, probably the most common is the Rosary; In the Eastern Church (the Eastern rites of the Catholic Church and Orthodox Church), the Jesus Prayer.
The Holy Rosary (undefined, in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), also known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer psalter used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers.

Amen

amēnchoral amen
However, the most commonly used closure in Christianity is simply "Amen" (from a Hebrew adverb used as a statement of affirmation or agreement, usually translated as so be it).
It is used in Jewish, Christian and Muslim worship as a concluding word or response to prayers.

Votive offering

votivevotive offeringsvotive deposit
The practice of votive offering is also universal, and is attested at least since the Bronze Age.
Orthodox Christians continue to make votive offerings to this day, often in the form of tamata, metal plaques symbolizing the subject of their prayers.