Precious coral

The Queen Farida of Egypt red coral parure by Ascione, made in 1938 in Naples, Coral Jewellery Museum
Chinese coral sculpture
6-Strand Necklace, Navajo (Native American), ca. 1920s, Brooklyn Museum
Coral earrings.
Red coral precious raw gemstone

Common name given to a genus of marine corals, Corallium.

- Precious coral

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Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria.

A coral outcrop on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia
its body parts
Montastraea cavernosa polyps with tentacles extended
Discharge mechanism of a stinging cell (nematocyst)
Life cycles of broadcasters and brooders
A male great star coral, Montastraea cavernosa, releasing sperm into the water.
Generalized life cycle of corals via sexual reproduction: Colonies release gametes in clusters (1) which float to the surface (2) then disperse and fertilize eggs (3). Embryos become planulae (4) and can settle onto a surface (5). They then metamorphose into a juvenile polyp (6) which then matures and reproduces asexually to form a colony (7, 8).
Basal plates (calices) of Orbicella annularis showing multiplication by budding (small central plate) and division (large double plate)
Phylogenetic tree representing bacterial Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from clone libraries and next-generation sequencing. OTUs from next-generation sequencing are displayed if the OTU contained more than two sequences in the unrarefied OTU table (3626 OTUs).
Stable microbes may be introduced to the holobiont through horizontal or vertical transmission and persist in ecological niches within the coral polyp where growth (or immigration) rates balance removal pressures from biophysical processes and immune or ecological interactions. Transient microbes enter the holobiont from environmental sources (e.g., seawater, prey items, or suspension feeding) and removal rates exceed growth/immigration rates such that a dynamic and high diversity microbiota results. Transient and stable populations compete for resources including nutrients, light and space and the outcome of resource-based competition (bottom-up control) ultimately determines population growth rate and thus ability to persist when subject to removal. Whether a population is categorized as stable or transient may depend on the timeframe considered. AMP = antimicrobial peptides, ROS = reactive oxygen species
Locations of coral reefs around the world
Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is an important hermatypic coral from the Caribbean
A healthy coral reef has a striking level of biodiversity in many forms of marine life.
6-strand necklace, Navajo (Native American), ca. 1920s, Brooklyn Museum
Depiction of coral in the Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century copy of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. The facing page states that coral can be used to treat ulcers.
Global sea surface temperature (SST)
Porites lutea
This dragon-eye zoanthid is a popular source of color in reef tanks.
Tabulate coral (a syringoporid); Boone limestone (Lower Carboniferous) near Hiwasse, Arkansas, scale bar is 2.0 cm
Tabulate coral Aulopora from the Devonian period
Solitary rugose coral (Grewingkia) in three views; Ordovician, southeastern Indiana
Fungia sp. skeleton
Polyps of Eusmilia fastigiata
Pillar coral, Dendrogyra cylindricus
Brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis
Brain coral spawning
Brain coral releasing eggs
Fringing coral reef off the coast of Eilat, Israel.
Corals, Tis Beach, Chabahar, Iran
Corals, Tis Beach, Chabahar, Iran

Aristotle's pupil Theophrastus described the red coral, korallion, in his book on stones, implying it was a mineral, but he described it as a deep-sea plant in his Enquiries on Plants, where he also mentions large stony plants that reveal bright flowers when under water in the Gulf of Heroes.


Small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.

A selection of glass beads
Merovingian bead
Trade beads, 18th century
Trade beads, 18th century
Cloisonné beads
Swarovski crystal beads (6 mm–8 mm), pendant 3 cm
Pressed glass beads (matte finish with an AB coating)
A box of assorted beads
Dichroic beads (10 mm)
Furnace glass beads
Carved Cinnabar lacquer beads
Bead, depicting a pomegranate, dated to the Assyrian Empire of the 8th century BCE.
Antique Celtic pearl, Gallic, stone

The natural organics include bone, coral, horn, ivory, seeds (such as tagua nuts), animal shell, and wood.


One of the three monstrous Gorgons, generally described as winged human females with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

Classical Greek gorgoneion featuring the head of Medusa; fourth century BC
An archaic Medusa wearing the belt of the intertwined snakes, a fertility symbol, as depicted on the west pediment of the Temple of Artemis on the island of Corcyra
Medusa by Arnold Böcklin, circa 1878
An embossed plaque in the Art Nouveau style from 1911
Perseus with the Head of Medusa, Benvenuto Cellini (1554)
Medusa, by Caravaggio (1595)
The Gates of Hell
An ancient Roman carving of the Medusa, now spolia in use as a column base in the Basilica Cistern
Coins of the reign of Seleucus I Nicator of Syria (312–280 BC)
The Medusa's head central to a mosaic floor in a tepidarium of the Roman era. Museum of Sousse, Tunisia
A Roman cameo of the 2nd or 3rd century
Municipal coat of arms of Dohalice village, Hradec Králové District, Czech Republic
Flag of Sicily
Ceremonial French military uniform belt of World War I
Medusa image in a historical caricature of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution

In a similar manner, the corals of the Red Sea were said to have been formed of Medusa's blood spilled onto seaweed when Perseus laid down the petrifying head beside the shore during his short stay in Ethiopia where he saved and wed his future wife, the lovely princess Andromeda, who was the most beautiful woman in the world at that time.

Coral (color)

A coral-colored Algerian coral

The various tones of the color coral are orange, red and pink representations of the colors of those cnidarians known as precious corals.

Marine protected area

Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or in the US, the Great Lakes.

Marine protected areas as at 2020 (data from MPAtlas).
Milford Sound, New Zealand is a strict marine reserve (Category Ia).
The Chagos Archipelago was declared the world's largest marine reserve in April 2010 with an area of 250,000 square miles until March 2015 when It was declared illegal by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Hawaiian waves crashing against rocks on shore.
Asinara, Italy is listed by WDPA as both a marine reserve and a national marine park, and as such could be labelled 'multiple-use'.
Bunaken National Park, Indonesia is officially listed as both a marine reserve and a national marine park.
The Caribbean region; the UNEP–defined region also includes the Gulf of Mexico. This region is encompassed by the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System proposal, and the Caribbean challenge.
The Gulf of Mexico region (in 3D) is encompassed by the "Islands in the Stream" proposal.
Cliffs in Hawaii overlooking central Pacific Ocean
Diagram illustrating the orientation of the three marine sanctuaries of Central California: Cordell Bank, Gulf of the Farallones, and Monterey Bay. Davidson Seamount, part of the Monterey Bay sanctuary, is indicated at bottom-right.
The Prickly Pear Cays are a marine protected area, roughly six miles from Road Bay, Anguilla, in the Leeward Islands of the Caribbean.

Two assessments, conducted thirty years apart, of three Mediterranean MPAs, demonstrate that proper protection allows commercially valuable and slow-growing red coral (Corallium rubrum) to produce large colonies in shallow water of less than 50 m. Shallow-water colonies outside these decades-old MPAs are typically very small.

Mandarin (bureaucrat)

Bureaucrat scholar in the history of China, Korea and Vietnam.

A 15th-century portrait of the Ming official Jiang Shunfu. The cranes on his mandarin square indicate that he was a civil official of the sixth rank.
A Qing photograph of a government official with Mandarin Square in the front
A European view: a mandarin travelling by boat, Baptista van Doetechum, 1604
Nguyễn Văn Tường (Hán tự: 阮文祥, 1824–1886) was a mandarin of the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam.

The lower ranks of mandarins were signified by hat-pins made of coral, sapphire, lapis lazuli, white jade, gold, and silver.

Highland dress

Traditional, regional dress of the Highlands and Isles of Scotland.

King Edward VII in a tweed Argyll jacket, kilt and Glengarry (1904)
James Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife in a plain cuff Crail jacket (1984)
Formal black tie Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket (2005)
Highlanders wearing kilts, plaids, bonnets, and an early example of trews; 1631 German engraving.
The Highland Wedding, David Allan (1780)
Highland chieftain Lord Mungo Murray wearing belted plaid, around 1680.
A member of Clan MacNeacail, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, wearing a tonnag R. R. McIan (1845)
Portrait by Henry Raeburn of Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry in 1812.
Campbell of Breadalbane (~1845-1847)
Costumes of All Nations (1882)
Boy wearing open necked velvet doublet, kilt and plaid (1898)
Highland Dress advertisement (1957)
Black Barathea Silver Button Argyll (BBSBA) jacket, worn with a five button waistcoat and long tie for day wear (2006)
A modern style of ghillies made specifically for dancing (2006)
Piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipes in traditional Scottish piper's uniform (2010){{efn|From top to bottom these are called, feather bonnet, doublet, plaid and plaid brooch, belt, sporran, kilt, hose tops, spats, brogues}}

The lower end of the belt has a piece of plate about eight inches long, and three in breadth, curiously engraven; the end of which was adorned with fine stones, or pieces of red coral.


Small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the coast of Tuscany, Italy; it is the southernmost island of the Tuscan Archipelago and it is a frazione of the comune of Isola del Giglio in the Province of Grosseto.

Map of the Tuscan Archipelago
Cala Maestra
Giannutri Spalmatoio gulf with Monte Argentario
The coast of Giannutri
Giannutri's lighthouse
Giannutri's disused runway

The marine flora is abundant in sponges, madreporaria, black coral and red coral.

Fleeming Jenkin

Regius Professor of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, remarkable for his versatility.

Drawing of the first ever aerial tramway or telpher, designed and engineered by Fleeming Jenkin. It was installed in Glynde in Sussex in 1885 to transport clay, and was finished after Jenkin's death.
Plaque to Fleeming Jenkin, King's Buildings, Edinburgh

cable, which had been broken by the anchors of coral fishers, was grapnelled with difficulty.


Loop of prayer beads commonly used in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism for counting recitations when performing japa (reciting a mantra or other sacred sound) or for counting some other sadhana (spiritual practice) such as prostrating before a holy icon.

Portrait of Sawai Madho Singh counting beads on a pearl and ruby mala; Jaipur, c. 1750
Statue of Shiva at Murudeshwara; Shiva is frequently depicted wearing a pair of rudraksha malas in Shaiva Hindu iconography
Chinese Buddhist 18-bead wooden mala
Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, wearing a mala around his wrist
Sculpture of a Jain sadhvi hold a japamala

Red and black hakik may be favoured for tamasic sadhanas, sphatik for praying to any deva, and red mūnga stone mainly for praising.