Predicate (grammar)wikipedia
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
predicatepredicatespredicationpredicativepredicationspredicatingpredicatorpredicate nominalgrammatical predicatepredicate form

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
In this approach, the predicate of a sentence mostly corresponds to the main verb and any auxiliaries that accompany the main verb; whereas the arguments of that predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the predicate.
In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
The subject and predicative nominal must be connected by a linking verb, also called a copula.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Object (grammar)

objectdirect objectindirect object
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
Traditional theories of sentence structure divide the simple sentence into a subject and a predicate, whereby the object is taken to be part of the predicate.

Predicative expression

predicative expressionpredicativepredicative adjective
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals).

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like.
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.

Valency (linguistics)

valencyvalencevalency theory
One acknowledges the valency of predicates, whereby a given predicate can be avalent (not shown), monovalent (laughed in the first sentence), divalent (helped in the second sentence), or trivalent (gave in the third sentence).
In linguistics, valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a predicate, content verbs being typical predicates.

Traditional grammar

traditional grammar
The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like.
In traditional grammar syntax, a sentence is analyzed as having two parts, a subject and a predicate.

Verb phrase

verb phraseVPphrases
These theories divide the generic declarative sentence (S) into a noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP), e.g.
A verb phrase is similar to what is considered a predicate in more traditional grammars.

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like.
The subject (glossing abbreviations: or ) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
The area of grammar that explores the nature of predicates, their arguments, and adjuncts is called valency theory.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structure grammarphrase structureconstituency grammar
This traditional understanding of predicates has a concrete reflex in all phrase structure theories of syntax.
The constituency relation derives from the subject-predicate division of Latin and Greek grammars that is based on term logic and reaches back to Aristotle in antiquity.

Clause

clauseclausesfinite clause
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Dependency grammar

dependency grammardependentdependency
This concept of sentence structure stands in stark contrast to dependency structure theories of grammar, which place the finite verb (= conjugated verb) as the root of all sentence structure and thus reject this binary NP-VP division.
The constituency relation derives from an initial binary division, whereby the clause is split into a subject noun phrase (NP) and a predicate verb phrase (VP).

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
While the predicate cannot be construed as a constituent in the formal sense, it is a catena.
The catena concept was introduced to linguistics by William O'Grady in 1998 and has been seized upon by other linguists and applied to the syntax of idiosyncratic meaning of all sorts, such as ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.).

Noun phrase

noun phrasenoun phrasesNP
In this approach, the predicate of a sentence mostly corresponds to the main verb and any auxiliaries that accompany the main verb; whereas the arguments of that predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the predicate. These theories divide the generic declarative sentence (S) into a noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP), e.g.
That is, the syntactic functions that they fulfill are those of the arguments of the main clause predicate, particularly those of subject, object and predicative expression.

Meaning-text theory

meaning–text theorymeaning-text
The SemS itself consists of a network of predications, represented as nodes with arrows running from predicate nodes to argument node(s).

Auxiliary verb

auxiliary verbauxiliaryauxiliary verbs
These verb catenae generally contain a main verb and potentially one or more auxiliary verbs.
Hence both do not qualify as separate predicates, but rather they form part of a predicate with another expression - usually with a full verb in the case of auxiliary verbs and usually with a noun in the case of light verbs.

Grammatical number

numbersingulargrammatical number
We have just seen that a proper name cannot be. Singular indefinite noun phrases are also banned from this environment:
In Sanskrit and some other languages, number and case are fused category and there is concord for number between a noun and its predicator.

Secondary predicate

secondary predicates
A secondary predicate is a (mostly adjectival) predicative expression that conveys information about the subject or the object but is not the main predicate of the clause.

Nominalism

nominalismnominalistnominalists
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.

Romance copula

êtreessereésser
A copula is a word that links the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement).

Sorites paradox

sorites paradoxparadox of the heapsorites
The sorites paradox (sometimes known as the paradox of the heap) is a paradox that arises from vague predicates.

Resultative

resultative
Resultatives appear as predicates of sentences, and are generally composed of a verb (denoting the event) a postverbal noun phrase (denoting the entity that has undergone a change) and a so-called resultative phrase (denoting the state achieved as the result of the action named by the verb ) which may be represented by an adjective, a prepositional phrase, or a particle, among others.

Resource Description Framework

RDFResource Description Framework (RDF)RDF triples
For example, one way to represent the notion "The sky has the color blue" in RDF is as the triple: a subject denoting "the sky", a predicate denoting "has the color", and an object denoting "blue".