Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredicationpredicativepredicationspredicatorpredicatinggrammatical predicateindividual-levellinguistic predicates
In grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence, which modifies the subject and usually starts with a verb.wikipedia
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Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
In grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence, which modifies the subject and usually starts with a verb.
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.

Object (grammar)

objectdirect objectindirect object
These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
sentence structure divides the simple sentence into a subject and a predicate, whereby the object is taken to be part of the predicate.

Predicative expression

predicativepredicative adjectivepredicatively
These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals).

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
In grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence, which modifies the subject and usually starts with a verb.
The subject (glossing abbreviations: or ) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
The subject and predicative nominal must be connected by a linking verb, also called a copula.
A copular verb is often considered to be part of the predicate, the remainder being called a predicative expression.

Traditional grammar

The predicate in traditional grammar is inspired by propositional logic of antiquity (as opposed to the more modern predicate logic).
In traditional grammar syntax, a sentence is analyzed as having two parts, a subject and a predicate.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
The area of grammar that explores the nature of predicates, their arguments, and adjuncts is called valency theory.

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
This understanding sees predicates as relations or functions over arguments.
In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.

Verb phrase

VPphrasesverb
These theories divide an English declarative sentence (S) into a noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP), e.g.
A verb phrase is similar to what is considered a predicate in more traditional grammars.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
This traditional understanding of predicates has a concrete reflex in many phrase structure theories of syntax.
The constituency relation derives from the subject-predicate division of Latin and Greek grammars that is based on term logic and reaches back to Aristotle in antiquity.

Valency (linguistics)

valencyvalenceValency Grammar
One acknowledges the valency of predicates, whereby a given predicate can be avalent (not shown), monovalent (laughed in the first sentence), divalent (helped in the second sentence), or trivalent (gave in the third sentence).
In linguistics, valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a predicate, content verbs being typical predicates.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
This concept of sentence structure stands in stark contrast to dependency structure theories of grammar, which place the finite verb (= conjugated verb) as the root of all sentence structure and thus reject this binary NP-VP division, even for English.
The phrase structure relation derives from an initial binary division, whereby the clause is split into a subject noun phrase (NP) and a predicate verb phrase (VP).

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrase
These theories divide an English declarative sentence (S) into a noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP), e.g. A predicative nominal is a noun phrase, such as in a sentence "George III is the king of England", the phrase "the king of England" being the predicative nominal.
That is, the syntactic functions that they fulfill are those of the arguments of the main clause predicate, particularly those of subject, object and predicative expression.

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenaecatena'' or 'chains
While the predicate cannot be construed as a constituent in the formal sense, it is a catena.
The catena has served as the basis for the analysis of a number of phenomena of syntax, such as idiosyncratic meaning, ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.).

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
These verb catenae generally contain a main verb and potentially one or more auxiliary verbs.
Hence both do not qualify as separate predicates, but rather they form part of a predicate with another expression - usually with a full verb in the case of auxiliary verbs and usually with a noun in the case of light verbs.

Meaning-text theory

Meaning–text theorymeaning-text
The SemS itself consists of a network of predications, represented as nodes with arrows running from predicate nodes to argument node(s).

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
Singular indefinite noun phrases are also banned from this environment:
In Sanskrit and some other languages, number and case are fused category and there is concord for number between a noun and its predicator.

Categorical proposition

distributedDistribution of termscategorical
In each row of the following chart, S corresponds to the subject of the example sentence, and P corresponds to the predicate.

Secondary predicate

secondary predicates
A secondary predicate is a (mostly adjectival) predicative expression that conveys information about the subject or the object but is not the main predicate of the clause.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence, which modifies the subject and usually starts with a verb.

Verb

verbssubject-verb agreementv.
In grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence, which modifies the subject and usually starts with a verb.

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
In linguistic semantics, a predicate is an expression that modifies a description of something.

First-order logic

predicate logicfirst-orderpredicate calculus
The predicate in traditional grammar is inspired by propositional logic of antiquity (as opposed to the more modern predicate logic).