Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredicationpredicativepredicationspredicatingpredicatorgrammatical predicateindividual-levellinguistic predicates
There are two competing notions of the predicate, generating confusion concerning the use of the term predicate in general.wikipedia
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Object (grammar)

objectdirect objectindirect object
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
Traditional theories of sentence structure divide the simple sentence into a subject and a predicate, whereby the object is taken to be part of the predicate.

Predicative expression

predicativepredicative adjectivepredicatively
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals). The main trait of all predicative expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a "subject", whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at times it can be the clause object.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
The predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies).
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
The predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject.
The subject (glossing abbreviations: or ) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
The subject and predicative nominal must be connected by a linking verb, also called a copula.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Traditional grammar

The predicate in traditional grammar is inspired by propositional logic of antiquity (as opposed to the more modern predicate logic).
A verb signifies the predicate of the sentence. That is, a verb indicates what is being asserted or asked about the subject of the sentence (is in "My shirt is red"; own in "I own this house"; ran in "Jesse Owens ran in the 1936 Olympics").

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:
The area of grammar that explores the nature of predicates, their arguments, and adjuncts is called valency theory.

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
The predicate is a semantic unit that takes one or more arguments and relates these arguments to each other.
In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.

Verb phrase

verb phrasesVPphrases
These theories divide the generic declarative sentence (S) into a noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP), e.g.
A verb phrase is similar to what is considered a predicate in more traditional grammars.

Valency (linguistics)

valencyvalenceValency Grammar
One acknowledges the valency of predicates, whereby a given predicate can be avalent (not shown), monovalent (laughed in the first sentence), divalent (helped in the second sentence), or trivalent (gave in the third sentence).
In linguistics, valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a predicate, content verbs being typical predicates.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
This traditional understanding of predicates has a concrete reflex in all phrase structure theories of syntax.
The constituency relation derives from the subject-predicate division of Latin and Greek grammars that is based on term logic and reaches back to Aristotle in antiquity.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
This concept of sentence structure stands in stark contrast to dependency structure theories of grammar, which place the finite verb (= conjugated verb) as the root of all sentence structure and thus reject this binary NP-VP division.
The constituency relation derives from an initial binary division, whereby the clause is split into a subject noun phrase (NP) and a predicate verb phrase (VP).

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrase
These theories divide the generic declarative sentence (S) into a noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP), e.g. A predicative nominal is a noun phrase, such as in George III is the king of England, the king of England being the predicative nominal.
That is, the syntactic functions that they fulfill are those of the arguments of the main clause predicate, particularly those of subject, object and predicative expression.

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
Clause
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
While the predicate cannot be construed as a constituent in the formal sense, it is a catena.
The catena has served as the basis for the analysis of a number of phenomena of syntax, such as idiosyncratic meaning, ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.).

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
These verb catenae generally contain a main verb and potentially one or more auxiliary verbs.
Hence both do not qualify as separate predicates, but rather they form part of a predicate with another expression - usually with a full verb in the case of auxiliary verbs and usually with a noun in the case of light verbs.

Meaning-text theory

meaning-textmeaning–text theory
Meaning-text theory
The SemS itself consists of a network of predications, represented as nodes with arrows running from predicate nodes to argument node(s).

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
We have just seen that a proper name cannot be. Singular indefinite noun phrases are also banned from this environment:
In Sanskrit and some other languages, number and case are fused category and there is concord for number between a noun and its predicator.

Secondary predicate

secondary predicates
Secondary predicate
A secondary predicate is a (mostly adjectival) predicative expression that conveys information about the subject or the object but is not the main predicate of the clause.

First-order logic

predicate logicfirst-orderpredicate calculus
The predicate in traditional grammar is inspired by propositional logic of antiquity (as opposed to the more modern predicate logic).

Grammatical modifier

modifiermodifiersqualifier
The predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies).

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires or permits other elements to complete the predicate, or it precludes them from doing so. These elements are objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives, and adjuncts:

Nexus grammar

Nexus
The relation between a subject and its predicate is sometimes called a nexus.

Linking verb

link
The subject and predicative nominal must be connected by a linking verb, also called a copula.