Prehistory and protohistory of Poland

Reconstructed Biskupin

The prehistory and protohistory of Poland can be traced from the first appearance of Homo species on the territory of modern-day Poland, to the establishment of the Polish state in the 10th century AD, a span of roughly 500,000 years.

- Prehistory and protohistory of Poland

15 related topics



Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

The history of human activity on Polish soil spans thousands of years.


Ethno-cultural ideology within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Stanisław Antoni Szczuka in Sarmatian attire, wearing a kontusz
"Treatise about two Sarmatia Asian and European and about their composition" by Maciej Miechowita (1517)
Sarmatian-style Karacena armor
Sarmatians, westernmost of the Iranian peoples, ca.100 BC
Politically influential Elżbieta Sieniawska, in Sarmatist pose and male delia coat
Polish nobleman and two hajduk guards.
Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, the most prominent nobleman of his times and a representative of Sarmatism.
Original act of the Warsaw Confederation 1573, the first act of religious freedom in Europe
Poles dance the Polonaise (painting by Kornelli Szlegel)
Coffin portrait of Barbara Lubomirska, 1676.

Długosz was also responsible for linking the Sarmatians to the prehistory of Poland and this idea was continued by other chroniclers and historians such as Stanisław Orzechowski, Marcin Bielski, Marcin Kromer, and Maciej Miechowita.

Łysa Góra

Well-known hill in Świętokrzyskie Mountains, Poland.

Document of Polish ruler Bolesław V the Chaste from 1270 confirming the old privileges of the Holy Cross Monastery
Abbey in winter
Remains of the pagan wall
Katyn massacre memorial
Święty Krzyż TV Tower

During the times of prehistory of Poland, Łysa Góra was likely a sacred mountain and a site of a pagan temple of three gods, mentioned in the Annals of Jan Długosz.

Kazimierz Godłowski

Kazimierz Godłowski (December 9, 1934 in Kraków – July 9, 1995 in Kraków) was a Polish archeologist and historian specializing in the prehistoric period.

Czarnowo, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Village in the administrative district of Gmina Zławieś Wielka, within Toruń County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland.

The settlement dates back to prehistoric times.

Łysomice, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Village in Toruń County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland.

The village dates back to prehistoric times, and remains of prehistoric burials were found in the village.


Town and municipality in central Poland with 2,536 inhabitants (2005).

Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany in 1939
Main gate to the Lipski Palace
Piła pond in the Palace Park
Saint John the Baptist church
Old carriage house

Human settlement in Czerniejewo dates back to prehistoric times, however, the earliest mention of the settlement comes from 1284.


Village in the administrative district of Gmina Łowicz, within Łowicz County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.

A village in Strochitsy, Belarus, 2008.

Bocheń dates back to prehistoric or early medieval times.

Stobno, Lower Silesian Voivodeship

Village in the administrative district of Gmina Wołów, within Wołów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

The settlement dates back to prehistoric times, and there are archaeological sites from the Bronze Age and the Early Middle Ages in Stobno.


Village in the administrative district of Gmina Pruszcz Gdański, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

The settlement dates back to prehistoric times and there are three archaeological sites (two settlements and a cemetery) from the Iron Age in Żukczyn.