Prenatal cocaine exposure

The US government published posters like this one in the 1980s and 1990s to warn people away from crack.
Cocaine is a small enough molecule to pass across the placental barrier into the bloodstream of the fetus.
Premature baby
Women have been prosecuted for using crack while pregnant.

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug.

- Prenatal cocaine exposure

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Time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman's womb.

A woman in the third trimester of pregnancy
William Hunter, Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrata, 1774
Melasma: pigment changes to the face due to pregnancy
In the later part of pregnancy the uterus takes up much of the abdomen
Timeline of pregnancy, including (from top to bottom): Trimesters, embryo/fetus development, gestational age in weeks and months, viability and maturity stages
Distribution of gestational age at childbirth among singleton live births, given both when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound and directly by last menstrual period. Roughly 80% of births occur between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age.
Fertilization and implantation in humans
The initial stages of human embryogenesis
Breast changes as seen during pregnancy. The areolae are larger and darker.
The uterus as it changes in size over the duration of the trimesters
By the end of the second trimester, the expanding uterus has created a visible "baby bump". Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point.
Pregnant woman in third trimester of pregnancy (last month)
The uterus expands making up a larger and larger portion of the woman's abdomen. At left anterior view with months labeled, at right lateral view labeling the last 4 weeks. During the final stages of gestation before childbirth the fetus and uterus will drop to a lower position.
Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant.
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
A pregnant woman undergoing an ultrasound. Ultrasound is used to check on the growth and development of the fetus.
Giotto di Bondone Visitation, circa 1305
Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 6 weeks)
Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 10 weeks)
Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 20 weeks)
Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 40 weeks)
Relative size in 1st month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 3rd month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 5th month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 9th month (simplified illustration)
Anatomical model of a pregnant woman; Stephan Zick (1639–1715); 1700; Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Statue of a pregnant woman, Macedonia
Bronze figure of a pregnant naked woman by Danny Osborne, Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger Portrait of Susanna Temple, second wife of Sir Martin Lister, 1620
Octave Tassaert, The Waif aka L'abandonnée 1852, Musée Fabre, Montpellier

Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with premature birth, birth defects and attention deficit disorder.

Neonatal withdrawal

Withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence, most commonly opioids.

A newborn infant, seconds after delivery. Amniotic fluid glistens on her skin, and the umbilical cord is still attached.

Neonatal abstinence syndrome does not happen in prenatal cocaine exposure.

Project Prevention

American non-profit organization that pays drug addicts cash for volunteering for long-term birth control, including sterilization.

McDonald's Corporation is one of the most recognizable corporations in the world.

With the experience of helping the children through withdrawal and other health problems, she tried to get legislation passed in California that would have mandated long-term birth control for mothers who gave birth to babies who were exposed to cocaine as fetuses.

Murder of Maria Lauterbach

United States Marine who disappeared from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina on December 14, 2007.

"It all comes from fetal alcohol or fetal drug-use syndromes. Although our adoption agency claimed the child's background was satisfactory, we never met the mother. Maria's history was one of constant trouble—calls from the principals at her schools, arguments at sports activities, and a disrespectful attitude. We felt that enlisting in the Marines would be a turnaround for her, but it was a continuation of a problematic life."

Ferguson v. City of Charleston

United States Supreme Court decision that found Medical University of South Carolina's policy regarding involuntary drug testing of pregnant women to violate the Fourth Amendment.

In the fall of 1988, staff at a hospital operated by the Medical University of South Carolina became concerned about the prevalence of so-called "crack babies," as well as an increase in cocaine use among pregnant women receiving prenatal treatment at the hospital.

Drugs in pregnancy

Drugs and medications should be avoided while pregnant.

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with premature birth, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other conditions.

Grace After Midnight

American 2007 autobiographical memoir by Felicia Pearson, with author David Ritz credited as a contributor and co-author.

The book chronicles Pearson's life in East Baltimore, including her birth as a 3 pound crack baby, her placement into foster care and her eight-year prison sentence in Jessup, Maryland, on second-degree murder charges.

Laura E. Gómez

Professor at the School of Law at the University of California, Los Angeles where she also holds appointments in Sociology and the Department of Chicana & Chicano Studies and Central American Studies.

In Misconceiving Mothers: Legislators, Prosecutors and the Politics of Prenatal Drug Exposure (1997), she documented the career of the "crack baby"/"crack mother" social problem in the media and public policy, situating it at the nexus of the abortion debate, the drug war, and competing discourses of criminalization and medicalization as they played out in the late 1980s.

A.D.H.D (Kendrick Lamar song)

Song by American rapper Kendrick Lamar from his debut studio album, Section.80 .

Lamar at the 2018 Pulitzer Prize Awards Ceremony

It addresses the high drug and medication tolerance of people born during the 1980s, who are referred to as "crack babies" in the song due to the crack epidemic that was notable during that period.

Cocaine intoxication

Cocaine intoxication refers to the subjective, desired and adverse effects of cocaine on the mind and behavior of users.

US yearly overdose deaths involving cocaine.
US. Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. Green line is cocaine and any opioid. Gray line is cocaine without any opioids. Yellow line is cocaine and other.
A "cocaine alert" sign posted by GGD Amsterdam: the sign reminds people to "Call 112 for an ambulance."

Studies have shown that cocaine usage during pregnancy triggers premature labor and may lead to abruptio placentae.