Preposition and postpositionwikipedia
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
prepositionpostpositionprepositionspostpositionsadpositionprepositionaladpositionscircumpositionthroughambiposition

Part of speech

part of speechparts of speechclosed class
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article or determiner.

Adpositional phrase

prepositional phraseadpositional phraseprepositional phrases
The phrase formed by a preposition or postposition together with its complement is called a prepositional phrase (or postpositional phrase, adpositional phrase, etc.) – such phrases usually play an adverbial role in a sentence.
Adpositional phrases contain an adposition (preposition, postposition, or circumposition) as head and usually a complement such as a noun phrase.

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere is
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".
For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive or English possessive" (-'s).

Noun phrase

noun phrasenoun phrasesNP
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.
Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions.

Inflected preposition

inflected prepositionprepositional pronounsinflected
There are exceptions, though, such as prepositions that have fused with a pronominal object to form inflected prepositions.
In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

Oblique case

oblique caseobliqueobjective case
In English, the complements of prepositions take the objective case where available (from him, not *from he).
) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.

Preposition stranding

preposition strandingstranded prepositionstranded
This may be referred to as preposition stranding (see also below), as in "Whom did you go with?"
Preposition stranding, sometimes called P-stranding, is the syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object; for example, at the end of a sentence.

Pronoun

pronounpronounspronominal
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object. Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
Object pronouns are used for the object of a verb or preposition (John likes me but not her).

Prepositional pronoun

prepositional pronounobject of a prepositionprepositional
Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
A prepositional pronoun is a special form of a personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition.

Prepositional case

prepositional caseprepositionaldative or prepositional
Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
The prepositional case (abbreviated ) and the postpositional case (abbreviated ) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.

Genitive case

genitivegenitive casegen.
The functions of adpositions overlap with those of case markings (for example, the meaning of the English preposition of is expressed in many languages by a genitive case ending), but adpositions are classed as syntactic elements, while case markings are morphological.
That is, Modern English indicates a genitive construction with either the possessive clitic suffix "-", or a prepositional genitive construction such as "x of y". However, some irregular English pronouns do have possessive forms which may more commonly be described as genitive (see English possessive).

Object (grammar)

objectdirect objectindirect object
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.
A prepositional object is one that is introduced by a preposition.

Grammaticalization

grammaticalizationgrammaticalizedgrammaticalisation
Many simple adpositions are derived from complex forms (e.g., with + in → within, by + side → beside) through grammaticalisation.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).

Chinese grammar

ChineseChinese aspectsChinese aspect markers
The Chinese example could be analyzed as a prepositional phrase headed by cóng ("from"), taking the locative noun phrase bīngxīang lǐ ("refrigerator inside") as its complement.
Chinese prepositions behave similarly to serialized verbs in some respects (several of the common prepositions can also be used as full verbs), and they are often referred to as coverbs.

Common English usage misconceptions

common misconceptionno rulecommon English usage misconception
Some prescriptive English grammars teach that prepositions cannot end a sentence, although there is no rule prohibiting that use.
Misconception: A sentence must not end in a preposition.

Grammatical case

casegrammatical casecases
An adposition may determine the grammatical case of its complement.
A role that one of those languages marks by case is often marked in English with a preposition.

Ancient Greek grammar

Ancient GreekgrammarGreek
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".
The accusative, genitive, and dative cases are also used after prepositions, for example:

Head-directionality parameter

head-finalhead-initialhead final
Whether a language has primarily prepositions or postpositions is seen as an aspect of its typological classification, and tends to correlate with other properties related to head directionality.
English adpositional phrases are also head-initial; that is, English has prepositions rather than postpositions:

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
Case is primarily marked using word order and prepositions, while certain verb features are marked using auxiliary verbs.

Russian grammar

RussiangrammarRussian basic (unprefixed) verbs of motion
For example, in English the agent of a passive construction is marked by the preposition by, while in Russian it is marked by use of the instrumental case.
But if words and represent a compound preposition meaning"while, during the time of"they are written with -е: в тече́ние ча́са "in a time of an hour".

Uninflected word

uninflecteduninflected wordindeclinable
Adpositions themselves are usually non-inflecting ("invariant"): they do not have paradigms of form (such as tense, case, gender, etc.) the same way that verbs, adjectives, and nouns can.
In English and many other languages, uninflected words include prepositions, interjections, and conjunctions, often called invariable words.

Noun

nounnounssubstantive
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.

Phrasal verb

phrasal verbphrasal verbsprepositional verbs
In some contexts (as in the case of some phrasal verbs) the choice of adposition may be determined by another element in the construction or be fixed by the construction as a whole.
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.

Khmer grammar

Khmer
Like in English, prepositions are used rather than postpositions (words meaning "in", "on", etc. precede the noun that they govern).

Accusative case

accusativeaccusative caseacc.
The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions.