Preposition and postpositionwikipedia

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
prepositionpostpositionprepositionspostpositionsadpositionprepositionaladpositionscircumpositionthroughambiposition
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Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.
Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere is
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".
For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive or English possessive" (-'s).

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrases
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.
Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions.

Adpositional phrase

prepositional phraseprepositional phrasespreposition phrase
The phrase formed by a preposition or postposition together with its complement is called a prepositional phrase (or postpositional phrase, adpositional phrase, etc.) – such phrases usually play an adverbial role in a sentence.
Adpositional phrases contain an adposition (preposition, postposition, or circumposition) as head and usually a complement such as a noun phrase.

Inflected preposition

inflectedconjugated" prepositionconjugated prepositions
There are exceptions, though, such as prepositions that have fused with a pronominal object to form inflected prepositions.
In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

Preposition stranding

stranded prepositionstrandedpreposition-stranding
This may be referred to as preposition stranding (see also below), as in "Whom did you go with?"
Preposition stranding, sometimes called P-stranding, is the syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object; for example, at the end of a sentence.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominally
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object. Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
Subject pronouns are used in subject position (I like to eat chips, but she does not). Object pronouns are used for the object of a verb or preposition (John likes me but not her).

Prepositional pronoun

prepositionalobject of a prepositionprepositional form
Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
A prepositional pronoun is a special form of a personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition.

Prepositional case

prepositionaldative or prepositionalpostpositional case
Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
The prepositional case (abbreviated ) and the postpositional case (abbreviated ) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.

Grammaticalization

grammaticalizedgrammaticalisationgrammaticalised
Many simple adpositions are derived from complex forms (e.g., with + in → within, by + side → beside) through grammaticalisation.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
An adposition may determine the grammatical case of its complement.
A role that one of those languages marks by case is often marked in English with a preposition.

Chinese grammar

ChineseChinese aspectsChinese aspect markers
Chinese: 桌子上 zhuōzi shàng (lit. "table on"); this is a nominal form which usually requires an additional preposition to form an adverbial phrase (see Chinese locative phrases)
Chinese prepositions behave similarly to serialized verbs in some respects (several of the common prepositions can also be used as full verbs), and they are often referred to as coverbs.

Common English usage misconceptions

common misconceptionno rulecommon English usage misconception
Some prescriptive English grammars teach that prepositions cannot end a sentence, although there is no rule prohibiting that use.
Misconception: A sentence must not end in a preposition.

Ancient Greek grammar

Ancient GreekgrammarGreek
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".
The accusative, genitive, and dative cases are also used after prepositions, for example:

Head-directionality parameter

head-finalhead-initialhead final
Whether a language has primarily prepositions or postpositions is seen as an aspect of its typological classification, and tends to correlate with other properties related to head directionality.
4) Adpositional phrase (PP). Such phrases are called prepositional phrases if they are head-initial (i.e. headed by a preposition), or postpositional phrases if they are head-final (i.e. headed by a postposition). For more on these, see Preposition and postposition. The complement is a determiner phrase (or noun phrase, depending on analytical scheme followed).

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
French: sur la table ("on the table")
Case is primarily marked using word order and prepositions, while certain verb features are marked using auxiliary verbs.

Russian grammar

RussiangrammarRussian basic (unprefixed) verbs of motion
Russian: у меня ("in the possession of me" [I have])
prepositional

Uninflected word

uninflectedindeclinablenon-inflecting
Adpositions themselves are usually non-inflecting ("invariant"): they do not have paradigms of form (such as tense, case, gender, etc.) the same way that verbs, adjectives, and nouns can.
In English and many other languages, uninflected words include prepositions, interjections, and conjunctions, often called invariable words. These cannot be inflected under any circumstances (unless they are used as different parts of speech, as in "ifs and buts").

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article or determiner.

Phrasal verb

phrasal verbsprepositional verbsprepositional verb
In some contexts (as in the case of some phrasal verbs) the choice of adposition may be determined by another element in the construction or be fixed by the construction as a whole.
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.

Khmer grammar

Khmer
Khmer: លើក្តារខៀន [ləː kdaːkʰiən] ("on (the) blackboard")
Like in English, prepositions are used rather than postpositions (words meaning "in", "on", etc. precede the noun that they govern).

Accusative case

accusativeacc.ACC
in sein Zimmer ("into his room", directional meaning, takes the accusative)
The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions.

List of English prepositions

on, at, to, from, by'' and ''for'' in English
List of English prepositions
This is a list of English prepositions. Many English prepositions are compounds of bare roots and affixes such as a-, be-, -side, and -st, giving English a relatively high number of morphemically distinct prepositions.

Spanish prepositions

sobreprepositionSpanish preposition
Spanish prepositions
Prepositions in the Spanish language —like those in other languages— are a set of connecting words (such as con, de or para) that serve to indicate a relationship between a content word (noun, verb, or adjective) and a following noun phrase (or noun, or pronoun), known as the object of the preposition.

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicmonomorphemic
The most common adpositions are single, monomorphemic words. According to the ranking cited above, for example, the most common English prepositions are on, in, to, by, for, with, at, of, from, as, all of which are single-syllable words and cannot be broken down into smaller units of meaning.
Examples of an ambiguous situation are the preposition over and the determiner your, which seem to have a concrete meaning, but are considered function morphemes because their role is to connect ideas grammatically.