Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositionspostpositionsadpositionprepositionaladpositionscircumpositionthroughadpositional
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).wikipedia
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Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.
Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrase
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.
Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions.

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere is
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".
For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive or English possessive" (-'s).

Adpositional phrase

prepositional phraseprepositional phrasespreposition phrase
The phrase formed by a preposition or postposition together with its complement is called a prepositional phrase (or postpositional phrase, adpositional phrase, etc.) – such phrases usually play an adverbial role in a sentence.
Adpositional phrases contain an adposition (preposition, postposition, or circumposition) as head and usually a complement such as a noun phrase.

Oblique case

obliqueobjectiveobjective case
In English, the complements of prepositions take the objective case where available (from him, not *from he).
) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.

Inflected preposition

inflectedprepositional pronounsconjugated prepositions
There are exceptions, though, such as prepositions that have fused with a pronominal object to form inflected prepositions.
In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

Prepositional pronoun

object of a prepositionprepositionalprepositional form
Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
A prepositional pronoun is a special form of a personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition.

Prepositional case

prepositionaldative or prepositionalpost-positional
Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
The prepositional case (abbreviated ) and the postpositional case (abbreviated ) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object. Some languages have cases that are used exclusively after prepositions (prepositional case), or special forms of pronouns for use after prepositions (prepositional pronoun).
Object pronouns are used for the object of a verb or preposition (John likes me but not her).

Ancient Greek grammar

Ancient GreekgrammarGreek
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".

Preposition stranding

strandedstranded prepositionpreposition-stranding
This may be referred to as preposition stranding (see also below), as in "Whom did you go with?"
Preposition stranding, sometimes called P-stranding, is the syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object; for example, at the end of a sentence.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
An adposition may determine the grammatical case of its complement.
A role that one of those languages marks by case is often marked in English with a preposition.

Head-directionality parameter

head-finalhead-initialhead final
Whether a language has primarily prepositions or postpositions is seen as an aspect of its typological classification, and tends to correlate with other properties related to head directionality.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
In some languages, including Sindhi, Urdu, Turkish, Hindi, Korean, and Japanese, the same kind of words typically come after their complement.

Uninflected word

uninflectedindeclinablebase
Adpositions themselves are usually non-inflecting ("invariant"): they do not have paradigms of form (such as tense, case, gender, etc.) the same way that verbs, adjectives, and nouns can.
In English and many other languages, uninflected words include prepositions, interjections, and conjunctions, often called invariable words.

Chinese grammar

Chinese verbsChineseChinese aspect markers
For more information, see the article on Chinese grammar, particularly the sections on coverbs and locative phrases.
Chinese prepositions behave similarly to serialized verbs in some respects, and they are often referred to as coverbs.

Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
In English, this is generally a noun (or something functioning as a noun, e.g., a gerund), together with its specifier and modifiers such as articles, adjectives, etc. The complement is sometimes called the object of the adposition.
Other constructs that often modify nouns include prepositional phrases (as in "a rebel without a cause"), relative clauses (as in "the man who wasn't there"), and infinitive phrases (as in "a cake to die for").

French grammar

FrenchgrammarIl y a
Case is primarily marked using word order and prepositions, while certain verb features are marked using auxiliary verbs.

Russian grammar

RussiangrammarRussian basic (unprefixed) verbs of motion
For example, in English the agent of a passive construction is marked by the preposition by, while in Russian it is marked by use of the instrumental case.
But if words and represent a compound preposition meaning – "while, during the time of" – they are written with -е: в тече́ние ча́са "in a time of an hour".

Grammaticalization

grammaticalizedgrammaticalisationgrammaticalised
Many simple adpositions are derived from complex forms (e.g., with + in → within, by + side → beside) through grammaticalisation.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicderivational
Examples of ambiguous situations are the preposition over and the determiner your, which seem to have concrete meanings but are considered function morphemes since their role is to connect ideas grammatically.

Khmer grammar

Khmer
Like in English, prepositions are used rather than postpositions (words meaning "in", "on", etc. precede the noun that they govern).

Common English usage misconceptions

List of common English usage misconceptionscommon misconceptioncommon English usage misconception
Some prescriptive English grammars teach that prepositions cannot end a sentence, although there is no rule prohibiting that use.
Misconception: A sentence must not end in a preposition.

Gerund

English gerundgerundsfused participle
In English, this is generally a noun (or something functioning as a noun, e.g., a gerund), together with its specifier and modifiers such as articles, adjectives, etc. The complement is sometimes called the object of the adposition.

Turkish grammar

Turkishdative caseTurkish verbs
In Turkish, verbs generally come at the end of the sentence or clause; adjectives and possessive nouns come before the noun they describe; and meanings such as "behind", "for", "like/similar to" etc. are expressed as postpositions following the noun rather than prepositions before it.