Preprint

preprintspreprint serverpre-printpreprint versionSocArXiv
In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.wikipedia
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Institutional repository

institutional repositoriesrepositoryrepositories
This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.
For a university, this includes materials such as monographs, eprints of academic journal articles—both before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review—as well as electronic theses and dissertations.

Academic publishing

research papersacademic paperacademic publisher
In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.
Due to this, many academics self-archive a 'pre-print' copy of their paper for free download from their personal or institutional website.

Ingelfinger rule

Today, in some journals, posting preprints may disqualify the research from submission for publication due to the Ingelfinger Rule.
On the other hand, it has also been stated that the real reason for the Ingelfinger rule is to protect the journals' revenue stream, and with the increase in popularity of preprint servers such as arXiv, figshare, bioRxiv, and PeerJPrePrints many journals have loosened their requirements concerning the Ingelfinger rule.

Postprint

postprints
While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal.
A digital draft before peer review is called a preprint.

ArXiv

arXiv.orgArXiv.org e-print archivearXiv id
This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.
arXiv (pronounced "archive"—the X represents the Greek letter chi [χ]) is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not full peer review.

Self-archiving

green open accessself-archiveself-archived
The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of peer-reviewed journals), or from eprints self-archived by their authors in their institutional repositories.
Therefore it may only be possible to self-archive the preprint of the article.

Eprint

e-printe-printseprints
Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.
When applied to journal articles, the term "eprints" covers both preprints (before peer review) and postprints (after peer review).

PeerJ

PeerJ Computer SciencePeerJ PreprintsPeerJPrePrints
PeerJ PrePrints is a free preprint server operated by PeerJ.
PeerJ is complemented by a preprint service named PeerJ Preprints which launched on April 3, 2013.

Scientific journal

journalmathematics journalscientific journals
In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.
In many fields in which even greater speed is wanted, such as physics, the role of the journal at disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint databases such as arXiv.org.

SciELO

Scientific Electronic LibrarySciELO BrazilSciELO Citation Index
In February 2017, SciELO announced plans to set up a preprints server – SciELO Preprints.

EngrXiv

Open Engineering Inc
An engineering preprint server, engrXiv, was launched in 2016 by the Center for Open Science and administrated by the University of Wisconsin–Stout.
engrXiv (Engineering Archive) is a preprint repository for engineering launched in July 2016.

Center for Open Science

Centre for Open ScienceOpen Science Collaboration
In 2016, several new preprint servers were proposed by Crossref, Centre for Open Science and ASAPbio.
In 2016 the group released three new open source preprint services covering the fields of engineering, engrXiv, one that covers social sciences, SocArxiv, and one for psychology, PsyArXiv.

BioRxiv

Based on the success of arXiv, bioRxiv was introduced in 2013, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Therapoid Preprint was launched in 2017 by Open Therapeutics, and ChemRxiv was announced in 2016 hosted by the American Chemical Society.
bioRxiv (pronounced "bio-archive" ) is an open access preprint repository for the biological sciences co-founded by John Inglis and Richard Sever in November 2013.

Academic journal

journaljournalsacademic journals
In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals.
Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature (1869) and Science (1880), the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, and the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.

Nature Precedings

Between 2007–2012 Nature Publishing Group ran their own preprint server, Nature Precedings. It hosted manuscripts, posters, and unpublished observations.
Nature Precedings was an open access electronic preprint repository of scholarly work in the fields of biomedical sciences, chemistry, and earth sciences.

Open access

open-accessopen access journalopen-access journal
e-LIS was launched in 2003, and is an international open access repository for academic papers in Library and Information Science (LIS), run by volunteers.
A "preprint" is typically a version of a research paper that is shared on an online platform prior to, or during, a formal peer review process.

Philip N. Cohen

Philip CohenCohen, Philip N.
It is administratively housed at the University of Maryland and directed by Philip Cohen.
He is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland, College Park, and director of SocArXiv, an open archive of the social sciences.

ChemRxiv

Based on the success of arXiv, bioRxiv was introduced in 2013, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Therapoid Preprint was launched in 2017 by Open Therapeutics, and ChemRxiv was announced in 2016 hosted by the American Chemical Society.
ChemRxiv is an open access preprint archive for chemistry.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
It was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints.
This division of efforts in particle physics is reflected in the names of categories on the arXiv, a preprint archive: hep-th (theory), hep-ph (phenomenology), hep-ex (experiments), hep-lat (lattice gauge theory).

EarthArXiv

In addition, EarthArXiv run by a group of scientists powered by the Center for Open Science launched in October 2017.
EarthArXiv (pronounced "Earth archive") is both a preprint server and a volunteer community devoted to open scholarly communication.

D-Scribe Digital Publishing

D-Scribe Digital Publishing ProgramD-Scribe Digital Publishing program at the University Library System, University of PittsburghUniversity Library System at the University of Pittsburgh
One of the earlier preprint servers is PhilSci-Archive, launched in 2001 for all subfields of Philosophy of Science, hosted by the University Library System at the University of Pittsburgh.

Open access in India

IndiaOpen Access Movement in India
AgrXiv was pre-launched in early February 2017 on a staging server on GitHub and then formally launched later on 14 February 2017 by the Open Access India, community of practice advocating Open Access in India.
Recently a preprint repository for India, IndiaRxiv was launched.

American Chemical Society

ACSACS PublicationsAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
Based on the success of arXiv, bioRxiv was introduced in 2013, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Therapoid Preprint was launched in 2017 by Open Therapeutics, and ChemRxiv was announced in 2016 hosted by the American Chemical Society.
ACS also created ChemRxiv, which is an open access preprint repository for the chemical sciences, co-owned, and collaboratively managed by the American Chemical Society (ACS), German Chemical Society (GDCh), Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), the chemistry community, other societies, funders, and non-profits; open for submissions and available for all readers at ChemRxiv.

Prepress

pre-pressdigital prepresspre-production techniques