Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant-Colfax Campaign Poster 1868
Electoral Vote Results 1868
Inauguration of President Grant Mathew Brady March 4, 1869
Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, 1869–1877
Charles Sumner Brady-Handy 1865–1875
African American Commissioner Frederick Douglass appointed by Grant believed Santo Domingo annexation would benefit the United States. Warren 1879
John Bull (Great Britain) is dwarfed by a gigantic inflated American "Alabama Claim" cartoon by Joseph Swain in Punch – or the London Charivari 22 Jan 1872.
Confederate Warship CSS Alabama
Active service (1862–1864)
USS Colorado (1856) transported troops in Admiral John Rodgers' assault on the Korean forts.
Ely S. Parker Donehogawa
Red Cloud Maȟpíya Lúta
Brigham Young Charles William Carter 1866–1877
Bennette Lockwood Mathew Brady 1865–1880
Hayden's Map of Yellowstone, 1871
American bison or buffalo; their numbers collapsed in the 1870s forcing the Native Americans who hunted them to depend instead on government-issued food supplies on their reservations.
"Salary Grab" caption: "That salary grab – 'You took it'" Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper December 27, 1873
Grant-Wilson Campaign Poster 1872
Electoral Vote Results 1872
Grant's second inauguration as president by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, surrounded by top officials, on March 4, 1873
Louisiana White League units in 1874 to terrorized black Republicans
Former Confederate General James A. Longstreet and African-American militia attempted to stop a white supremacist revolt at New Orleans in September 1874.
Former Confederate officer Wade Hampton III was supported by the terrorist group Red Shirts in the 1876 Governor's election in South Carolina.
The NYSE closed on September 20, 1873
Political cartoon by Thomas Nast: Grant congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" on April 22, 1874
Emilio Castelar Spanish Republic president (1873–1874)
Grant's Cabinet, 1876–1877
Morrison Waite 7th Chief Justice of the United States, March 4, 1874 – March 23, 1888

Inaugurated as the 18th president of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1877.

- Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant

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Hamilton Fish

American politician who served as the 16th Governor of New York from 1849 to 1850, a United States Senator from New York from 1851 to 1857 and the 26th United States Secretary of State from 1869 to 1877.

Photograph by Mathew Brady
U. S. Representative Hamilton Fish
Sketch by Fenderich – 1844
Gubernatorial portrait of Hamilton Fish
U.S. Senator Hamilton Fish
Winfield Scott and Hamilton Fish dined regularly in New York during the onset of the American Civil War.
President Ulysses S. Grant was determined to annex Santo Domingo.
The American High Commissioners met in Washington D.C. Hamilton Fish served as chairman. Brady – 1871
John Bull (Great Britain) is dwarfed by a gigantic inflated American "Alabama Claim" cartoon by Joseph Swain in Punch--or the London Charivari 22 Jan 1872.
Caricature of Hamilton Fish
Vanity Fair – 1872
U.S. Naval officers in the Asiatic Squadron on board the U.S.S. Colorado off Korea in June 1871
Celebration demonstrations in New York over the release of Virginius prisoners. Secretary Fish negotiated the release of the Virginius prisoners from Spanish authorities.
Morgan-January 1874
Fish seated left of Grant in Grant's Cabinet 1876–1877
Hamilton Fish Elder statesman
Hamilton Fish Memorial Cathedral of All Saints (Albany, New York)
Hamilton Fish II

Fish is recognized as the "pillar" of the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant and considered one of the best U.S. Secretaries of State by scholars, known for his judiciousness and efforts towards reform and diplomatic moderation.

Schuyler Colfax

American journalist, businessman, and politician who served as the 17th vice president of the United States from 1869 to 1873, and prior to that as the 25th Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1863 to 1869.

Ancestral home of Schuyler Colfax's grandparents William and Hester. Originally built in 1695.
John C. Frémont
Grant Colfax 1868 Campaign Poster
Vice President Schuyler Colfax
Colfax was castigated for his involvement in the Crédit Mobilier scandal in this March 6, 1873, political cartoon in which Uncle Sam is shown encouraging Colfax to commit hara-kiri.
Gravesite of Schuyler Colfax, in South Bend City Cemetery, South Bend, Indiana
Ellen M. Wade, second wife of Schuyler Colfax

Chosen as Ulysses S. Grant's running mate in the 1868 election, the pair won easily over Democratic Party nominees Horatio Seymour and Francis Preston Blair Jr. As was typical during the 19th century, Colfax had little involvement in the Grant administration.

United States Department of Justice

Federal executive department of the United States government tasked with the enforcement of federal law and administration of justice in the United States.

Organizational chart for the Dept. of Justice. (Click to enlarge)

The modern incarnation of the department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant presidency.

John Aaron Rawlins

General Rawlins at his quarters in City Point, Virginia with his second wife, Mary Hurlburt, and his child
General Ulysses S. Grant
General John A. Rawlins
In July 1863 Rawlins met with President Abraham Lincoln and his Cabinet at the White House.
Secretary of War John Aaron Rawlins Henry Ulke, 1873
General William T. Sherman Healy, 1866
Brigham Young
Celebration opening night of the Brooklyn Bridge, 1883
Statue of John Aaron Rawlins in Washington D.C.

John Aaron Rawlins (February 13, 1831 – September 6, 1869) was a general officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War and a cabinet officer in the Grant administration.

42nd United States Congress

Meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.

President of the Senate Schuyler Colfax
Senate President pro tempore Henry B. Anthony

It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1871, to March 4, 1873, during the third and fourth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency.

Comstock laws

The symbol of Comstock's New York Society for the Suppression of Vice.

The Comstock Laws were a set of federal acts passed by the United States Congress under the Grant administration along with related state laws.

Panic of 1873

Financial crisis that triggered an economic depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 to 1877 or 1879 in France and in Britain.

A bank run on the Fourth National Bank No. 20 Nassau Street, New York City, from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, 4 October 1873
New York police violently attacking unemployed workers in Tompkins Square Park, 1874
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange

Public opinion made it difficult for the Grant administration to develop a coherent policy on the Southern states, and the North began to steer away from Reconstruction.

Great Sioux War of 1876

Series of battles and negotiations that occurred in 1876 and 1877 in an alliance of Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne against the United States.

Custer's last stand at Little Bighorn in the Crow Indian Reservation.
A map of the Great Sioux Reservation as established in 1868. "Unceded lands" for Cheyenne and Sioux use were west of the reservation in Montana and Wyoming. The desire of the U.S. government to obtain the Black Hills was the principal cause of the Great Sioux War.
Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa, was one of the principal Sioux leaders.
Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn along with 268 soldiers.
The Lakota Wars (1854–1890): The battlefields and the Lakota treaty territory of 1851. Most battles "between the army and the Dakota [Lakota] were on lands those Indians had taken from other tribes since 1851".
The three columns of the 1876 summer campaign
Custer and the last of his men were killed and buried here. The Indian village was on the other side of the line of trees marking the Little Bighorn River. To visit the old battlefield today it is necessary to enter the Crow Indian Reservation – it was exactly the same in 1876.
An Indian warrior, painting by Frederic Remington

Such evictions, however, increased political pressure on the Grant Administration to secure the Black Hills from the Lakota.

Republican Party (United States)

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

Others found contempt with the large-scale corruption present in Grant's administration, with the emerging Stalwart faction defending Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service.

1876 United States presidential election

The 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876 in which Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden.

The election was hotly contested, as can be seen by this poster, which was published in 1877.
A certificate for the electoral vote for Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler for the State of Louisiana
"A truce – not a compromise, but a chance for high-toned gentlemen to retire gracefully from their very civil declarations of war." By Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, 1877 Feb 17, p. 132.
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of blue are for Tilden (Democratic), and shades of red are for Hayes (Republican).
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Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio
Senator James G. Blaine from Maine
Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin Bristow
Senator Oliver P. Morton from Indiana
Senator Roscoe Conkling from New York
Governor John F. Hartranft of Pennsylvania
Postmaster General Marshall Jewell
Ambassador Elihu B. Washburne from Illinois
Representative
Secretary of State
President Ulysses S. Grant<ref>Presidential election of 1876</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.grantstomb.org/news/3t13.html |title=Was Grant a candidate? |access-date=June 30, 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180210065334/http://www.grantstomb.org/news/3t13.html |archive-date=February 10, 2018 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
1st Presidential Ballot
2nd Presidential Ballot
3rd Presidential Ballot
4th Presidential Ballot
5th Presidential Ballot
6th Presidential Ballot
7th Presidential Ballot
Recorded Vice Presidential Ballot
Governor Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana
Major General Winfield Scott Hancock from Pennsylvania
William Allen from Ohio
Senator Thomas F. Bayard from Delaware
Joel Parker from New Jersey
<center>'''1st Presidential Ballot
<center>'''1st Presidential Ballot
<center>'''2nd Presidential Ballot
<center>'''2nd Presidential Ballot
Philanthropist Peter Cooper from New York
Andrew Curtin from Pennsylvania
Alexander Campbell from Illinois
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Tilden, who had prosecuted machine politicians in New York and sent the legendary political boss William M. Tweed to jail, ran as a reform candidate against the background of the corruption of the Grant administration.