Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
George Washington, the first president of the United States
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a radio address, 1933
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr. and others look on
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
President Donald Trump delivers his 2018 State of the Union Address, with Vice President Mike Pence and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Gorbachev sign the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord in the White House.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
President Barack Obama with his Supreme Court appointee Justice Sotomayor, 2009
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
President Ronald Reagan reviews honor guards during a state visit to China, 1984
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
President Woodrow Wilson throws out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1916
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
President Jimmy Carter (left) debates Republican nominee Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1980.
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated following the 2010 census to each state and the District of Columbia for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections; it also notes that Maine and Nebraska distribute electors by way of the congressional district method. 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible.
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Franklin D. Roosevelt won a record four presidential elections (1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944), leading to the adoption of a two-term limit.
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
President William McKinley and his successor, Theodore Roosevelt
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
President Reagan surrounded by Secret Service
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
From left: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009; Obama formally took office thirteen days later.
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum in Dallas, 2013
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White House, the official residence
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Camp David, the official retreat
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Blair House, the official guest house
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
The presidential limousine, dubbed "The Beast"
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is on board
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant ; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

- Ulysses S. Grant

After Lincoln's assassination, his successor Andrew Johnson lost all political support and was nearly removed from office, with Congress remaining powerful during the two-term presidency of Civil War general Ulysses S. Grant.

- President of the United States

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Portrait by Mathew Brady

Andrew Johnson

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Portrait by Mathew Brady
Johnson's birthplace and childhood home, located at the Mordecai Historic Park in Raleigh, North Carolina
Eliza McCardle Johnson
The Andrew Johnson House, built in 1851 in Greeneville, Tennessee
Portrait of Johnson, 1856, attributed to William Brown Cooper
Senator Johnson, 1859
Johnson in 1860
Poster for the Lincoln and Johnson ticket by Currier and Ives
1865 cartoon showing Lincoln and Johnson using their talents as rail-splitter and tailor to repair the Union
Contemporary woodcut of Johnson being sworn in by Chief Justice Chase as Cabinet members look on, April 15, 1865
Official portrait of President Johnson, c. 1880
Thomas Nast cartoon of Johnson disposing of the Freedmen's Bureau as African Americans go flying
"The Situation", a Harper's Weekly editorial cartoon, shows Secretary of War Stanton aiming a cannon labeled "Congress" to defeat Johnson. The rammer is "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannonballs on the floor are "Justice".
Illustration of Johnson's impeachment trial in the United States Senate, by Theodore R. Davis, published in Harper's Weekly
Illustration of Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate George T. Brown delivering a summons for the impeachment trial to Johnson at the White House on March 7, 1868
Illustration of Johnson consulting with his counsel for the trial
"Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness!": Harper's Weekly cartoon mocking Johnson on leaving office
Senator Andrew Johnson in 1875 (age 66)
The grave of Andrew Johnson, Greeneville, Tennessee

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.

Instead, he remained after word came that General Ulysses S. Grant had captured the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, presaging the end of the war.

The ruins of Richmond, Virginia, the former Confederate capital, after the American Civil War; newly-freed African Americans voting for the first time in 1867; office of the Freedmen's Bureau in Memphis, Tennessee; Memphis riots of 1866

Reconstruction era

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Period in American history following the American Civil War ; it lasted from 1865 to 1877 and marked a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States.

Period in American history following the American Civil War ; it lasted from 1865 to 1877 and marked a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States.

The ruins of Richmond, Virginia, the former Confederate capital, after the American Civil War; newly-freed African Americans voting for the first time in 1867; office of the Freedmen's Bureau in Memphis, Tennessee; Memphis riots of 1866
The Southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865
The distribution of wealth per capita in 1872, illustrating the disparity between North and South in that period
A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union". The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Monument in honor of the Grand Army of the Republic, organized after the war
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867
Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861–1865)
Celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation in Massachusetts, 1862
Northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States (1865–1869)
An October 24th, 1874 Harper's Magazine editorial cartoon by Thomas Nast denouncing KKK and White League murders of innocent Blacks
The debate over Reconstruction and the Freedmen's Bureau was nationwide. This 1866 Pennsylvania election poster alleged that the bureau kept the Negro in idleness at the expense of the hardworking white taxpayer. A racist caricature of an African American is depicted.
1868 Republican cartoon identifies Democratic candidates Seymour and Blair (right) with KKK violence and with Confederate soldiers (left).
"This is a white man's government", Thomas Nast's caricature of the forces arraigned against Grant and Reconstruction in the 1868 election. Atop a black Union veteran reaching for a ballot box: the New York City Irish; Confederate and Klansman Nathan Bedford Forrest; and big-money Democratic Party chairman August Belmont, a burning freedmen's school in the background. Harper's Weekly, September 5, 1868.
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President of the United States (1869–1877)
Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan, believing that the strong arm of the federal Justice Department could pacify the South.
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting The Lord is My Shepherd, of a man reading the Bible
Atlanta's rail yard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
$20 banknote with portrait of Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch
Winslow Homer's 1876 painting A Visit from the Old Mistress
A Republican Form of Government and No Domestic Violence, by Thomas Nast, a political cartoon about the Wheeler Compromise in Louisiana, published in Harper's Weekly, March 6, 1875
White Leaguers attacking the New Orleans integrated police force and state militia, Battle of Liberty Place, 1874
Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the United States (1877–1881)
A poster for the 1939 epic film Gone with the Wind, which is set during the Civil War and Reconstruction eras
Map of the five Reconstruction military districts
First Military District
Second Military District
Third Military District
Fourth Military District
Fifth Military District

Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South via the Enforcement Acts recently passed by Congress.

At 4:10 am on March 2, Senator Ferry announced that Hayes and Wheeler had been elected to the presidency and vice presidency, by an electoral margin of 185–184.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863

Abraham Lincoln

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Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

In the spring of 1863 Lincoln was sufficiently optimistic about upcoming military campaigns to think the end of the war could be near; the plans included attacks by Hooker on Lee north of Richmond, Rosecrans on Chattanooga, Grant on Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston.

Signed House resolution to impeach President Johnson, adopted February 24, 1868

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

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Signed House resolution to impeach President Johnson, adopted February 24, 1868
President Andrew Johnson
"The Situation", a Harper's Weekly editorial cartoon shows Secretary of War Stanton aiming a cannon labeled "Congress" to defeat Johnson. The rammer is "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannonballs on the floor are "Justice".
John Covode's single sentence impeachment resolution, presented on February 21, 1868
Illustration of Thaddeus Stevens and John Bingham notifying the Senate bar of the impeachment on February 25, 1868
Illustration of the seven-member committee meeting to draft the articles of impeachment. From left to right: Thaddeus Stevens, James F. Wilson, John A. Logan, George S. Boutwell, George Washington Julian, John Bingham
Illustration of Thaddeus Stevens speaking during March 2, 1868 debate
Bingham presents the articles of impeachment to the Senate
House impeachment managers.<Br>Seated L-R: Butler, Stevens, Williams, Bingham; Standing L-R: Wilson, Boutwell, Logan
Andrew Johnson impeachment trial admission ticket dated March 24, 1868
Judgment of the Senate
Scene from the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson as shown in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper March 28, 1868
Illustration of Thaddeus Stevens speaking during March 2, 1868 debate
House impeachment managers.<Br>Seated L-R: Butler, Stevens, Williams, Bingham; Standing L-R: Wilson, Boutwell, Logan

The impeachment of Andrew Johnson was initiated on February 24, 1868, when the United States House of Representatives resolved to impeach Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States, for "high crimes and misdemeanors", which were detailed in 11 articles of impeachment.

Earlier, while the Congress was not in session, Johnson had suspended Stanton and appointed General Ulysses S. Grant as secretary of war ad interim.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1870–1880

Rutherford B. Hayes

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Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1870–1880
Hayes's childhood home in Delaware, Ohio
Rutherford and Lucy Hayes on their wedding day
Hayes in Civil War uniform in 1861
George Crook was Hayes's commander and the namesake of his fourth son
President Andrew Johnson and Radical Republicans fought over Reconstruction.
Hayes's home, Spiegel Grove, in Fremont, Ohio
Original Currier & Ives campaign poster depicting the Hayes-Wheeler ticket, the last and rarest in the firm's "Grand National Banner" series
Results of the 1876 election, with states won by Hayes in red, and those won by Tilden in blue
Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite administering the oath of office to Hayes
A cartoon of Hayes kicking Chester A. Arthur out of the New York Custom House
Burning of Union Depot, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 21–22, 1877
Treasury Secretary John Sherman worked with Hayes to return the country to the gold standard.
A political cartoon from 1882, criticizing Chinese exclusion
An 1881 political cartoon about Carl Schurz's management of the Indian Bureau
Portrait of Rutherford B. Hayes by Eliphalet Frazer Andrews, 1881
Currier & Ives lithograph of the Hayes cabinet in 1877
Stanley Matthews's confirmation to the Supreme Court was more difficult than Hayes expected.
Official White House portrait of President Hayes by Daniel Huntington, 1884
Hayes in 1886
Grave at Spiegel Grove

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, after serving in the U.S. House of Representatives and as governor of Ohio.

His leadership and bravery drew his superiors' attention, with Ulysses S. Grant later writing of Hayes, "[h]is conduct on the field was marked by conspicuous gallantry as well as the display of qualities of a higher order than that of mere personal daring."

Nominees Garfield and Arthur

1880 Republican National Convention

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The 1880 Republican National Convention convened from June 2 to June 8, 1880, at the Interstate Exposition Building in Chicago, Illinois, United States.

The 1880 Republican National Convention convened from June 2 to June 8, 1880, at the Interstate Exposition Building in Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Nominees Garfield and Arthur
A photograph of President Grant circa 1880
Blaine during the 1870s
A photograph of John Sherman taken while he was the United States Secretary of the Treasury
Garfield as brigadier general during the Civil War
Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York
An 1880 political cartoon depicts Senator Conkling over a "presidential puzzle" consisting of some of the potential Republican and Democratic nominees as pieces of a sliding puzzle.
A view inside the Interstate Exposition Building (known as the "Glass Palace") during the convention; James Abram Garfield (center, right) is on the podium, waiting to speak.
A satirical Puck cartoon depicting Ulysses S. Grant surrendering to James A. Garfield after losing the 1880 Republican presidential nomination to him.

Delegates nominated James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New York as the official Republican Party candidates for president and vice president in the 1880 presidential election.

Of the 14 men in contention for the Republican nomination, the three strongest leading up to the convention were Ulysses S. Grant, James G. Blaine, and John Sherman.