Presupposition

presuppositionspresupposeassumptionsfactivepresupposedaccommodation of presuppositionsassumingassumptionpresupposes
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.wikipedia
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Entailment (linguistics)

entailmententailsimplication
In this respect, presupposition is distinguished from entailment and implicature.
Entailment also differs from presupposition in that in presupposition, the truth of what one is presupposing is taken for granted.

Lauri Karttunen

After work by Lauri Karttunen, verbs that allow presuppositions to "pass up" to the whole sentence ("project") are called holes, and verbs that block such passing up, or projection of presuppositions are called plugs. Some linguistic environments are intermediate between plugs and holes: They block some presuppositions and allow others to project. The following is a selection of presuppositional triggers following Stephen C. Levinson's classic textbook on Pragmatics, which in turn draws on a list produced by Lauri Karttunen.
He published a series of seminal papers on discourse referents, presuppositions, implicative verbs, conventional implicatures, and questions.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse. A significant amount of current work in semantics and pragmatics is devoted to a proper understanding of when and how presuppositions project.
Presupposition

Implicature

conversational implicatureimpliedImplicit
In this respect, presupposition is distinguished from entailment and implicature.
Presupposition

Complex question

trick questionfallacy of many questionsleading questions
Fallacy of many questions
A complex question, trick question, multiple question or plurium interrogationum (Latin, "of many questions") is a question that has a presupposition that is complex.

Performative contradiction

contradictory
Performative contradiction
A performative contradiction (performativer Widerspruch) arises when the propositional content of a statement contradicts the presuppositions of asserting it. An example of a performative contradiction is the statement "I am dead" because the very act of proposing it presupposes the actor is alive.

Loaded question

Fallacy of many questionsWhen did you stop beating your wife?biased
Loaded question
Thus, these facts are presupposed by the question, and in this case an entrapment, because it narrows the respondent to a single answer, and the fallacy of many questions has been committed.

Definite description

descriptiondefinite descriptordescribing
This process of an addressee assuming that a presupposition is true, even in the absence of explicit information that it is, is usually called presupposition accommodation. We have just seen that presupposition triggers like my wife (definite descriptions) allow for such accommodation.
Existence and uniqueness are understood as a presupposition of a sentence containing a definite description, rather than part of the content asserted by such a sentence.

Synthetic personalisation

One notable feature of ideological presuppositions researched in CDA is a concept termed synthetic personalisation.
Mary Talbot ([1995]/2003) used the concept in her work on a synthetic sisterhood in teenage girls' magazines, analysing the linguistic devices (pronouns, presuppositions) constructing a simulated friendship between reader and producer.

Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech act
Van Dijk (2003) says CDA "primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality" operate in speech acts (including written text)—"text and talk".
Presupposition

Exception that proves the rule

aboveexception that proved the ruleexceptions which prove the rule
Exception that proves the rule
Presupposition

Double-barreled question

compound questiondouble barrelled questionmore than one issue
Double-barreled question
Presupposition

Tacit assumption

implicit assumptionassumedassumption
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.

Discourse

discursivediscursivelylanguage
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.

Negation

NOTlogical negationnegated
Crucially, negation of an expression does not change its presuppositions: I want to do it again and I don't want to do it again both presuppose that the subject has done it already one or more times; My wife is pregnant and My wife is not pregnant both presuppose that the subject has a wife.

Logical consequence

entailsentailmentfollows from
For example, The president was assassinated entails that The president is dead, but if the expression is negated, the entailment is not necessarily true.

Logical truth

necessarily truenecessary truthlogical necessity
For example, The president was assassinated entails that The president is dead, but if the expression is negated, the entailment is not necessarily true.

Bertrand Russell

RussellRussell, Bertrand16 Questions on the Assassination
Bertrand Russell tries to solve this dilemma with two interpretations of the negated sentence:

P. F. Strawson

Peter StrawsonStrawsonP.F. Strawson
2) Strawson's approach: Both "my wife is pregnant" and "my wife is not pregnant" use a wrong presupposition (i.e. that there exists a referent which can be described with the noun phrase my wife) and therefore can not be assigned truth values.

Referent

referentsco-referreference
2) Strawson's approach: Both "my wife is pregnant" and "my wife is not pregnant" use a wrong presupposition (i.e. that there exists a referent which can be described with the noun phrase my wife) and therefore can not be assigned truth values.

Truth value

truth-valuelogical valuetruth values
2) Strawson's approach: Both "my wife is pregnant" and "my wife is not pregnant" use a wrong presupposition (i.e. that there exists a referent which can be described with the noun phrase my wife) and therefore can not be assigned truth values.

Indicative conditional

conditionalif-thenBehavioral experiment (conditional reasoning)
These are called filters. An example of such an environment are indicative conditionals ("If-then" clauses).

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
A significant amount of current work in semantics and pragmatics is devoted to a proper understanding of when and how presuppositions project.

Stephen Levinson

LevinsonLevinson, Stephen C.S. C. Levinson
The following is a selection of presuppositional triggers following Stephen C. Levinson's classic textbook on Pragmatics, which in turn draws on a list produced by Lauri Karttunen.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
In Western epistemology, there is a tradition originating with Plato of defining knowledge as justified true belief.