presuppositionspresupposeassumptionspresupposedfactiveassumingaccommodation of presuppositionspresupposesassumption
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.wikipedia
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Lauri Karttunen

After work by Lauri Karttunen, verbs that allow presuppositions to "pass up" to the whole sentence ("project") are called holes, and verbs that block such passing up, or projection of presuppositions are called plugs. Some linguistic environments are intermediate between plugs and holes: They block some presuppositions and allow others to project.
He published a series of seminal papers on discourse referents, presuppositions, implicative verbs, conventional implicatures, and questions.

Entailment (linguistics)

In this respect, presupposition is distinguished from entailment and implicature.
Entailment also differs from presupposition in that in presupposition, the truth of what one is presupposing is taken for granted.

Performative contradiction

Performative contradiction
A performative contradiction (performativer Widerspruch) arises when the propositional content of a statement contradicts the presuppositions of asserting it. An example of a performative contradiction is the statement "I am dead" because the very act of proposing it presupposes the actor is alive.

Complex question

trick questionfallacy of many questionsleading questions
Fallacy of many questions
A complex question, trick question, multiple question or plurium interrogationum (Latin, "of many questions") is a question that has a presupposition that is complex.

Loaded question

fallacy of many questionsWhen did you stop beating your wife?trick
Loaded question
Thus, these facts are presupposed by the question, and in this case an entrapment, because it narrows the respondent to a single answer, and the fallacy of many questions has been committed.


In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or PSP) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.


conversational implicatureimpliedimplicit
In this respect, presupposition is distinguished from entailment and implicature.

Definite description

descriptiondefinite descriptorthis
This process of an addressee assuming that a presupposition is true, even in the absence of explicit information that it is, is usually called presupposition accommodation. We have just seen that presupposition triggers like my wife (definite descriptions) allow for such accommodation.
Existence and uniqueness are understood as a presupposition of a sentence containing a definite description, rather than part of the content asserted by such a sentence.

Synthetic personalisation

One notable feature of ideological presuppositions researched in CDA is a concept termed synthetic personalisation.
Mary Talbot ([1995]/2003) used the concept in her work on a synthetic sisterhood in teenage girls' magazines, analysing the linguistic devices (pronouns, presuppositions) constructing a simulated friendship between reader and producer.

Speech act

speech actsIndirect speech actspeech-act
Van Dijk (2003) says CDA "primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality" operate in speech acts (including written text)—"text and talk".

Exception that proves the rule

exceptions which prove the ruleaboveexception that proved the rule
Exception that proves the rule

Double-barreled question

compound questionmore than one issuedouble barrelled question
Double-barreled question


Modern hermeneutics includes both verbal and non-verbal communication as well as semiotics, presuppositions, and pre-understandings.

Personal identity

Continental philosophy deals with conceptually maintaining identity when confronted by different philosophic propositions, postulates, and presuppositions about the world and its nature.

Antony Flew

Flew, Antony GFlewFlew, A.
For much of his career Flew was known as a strong advocate of atheism, arguing that one should presuppose atheism until empirical evidence of a God surfaces.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and presuppositions, often overlooked, remain necessary in natural science.

Beyond Good and Evil

good' and 'evilbook
He then contests some of the key presuppositions of the old philosophic tradition like "self-consciousness", "knowledge", "truth", and "free will", explaining them as inventions of the moral consciousness.

Non-aggression principle

non-aggressioninitiation of forcenon-aggression axiom
Argumentation ethics: Some modern libertarian thinkers ground the non-aggression principle by an appeal to the necessary praxeological presuppositions of any ethical discourse, an argument pioneered by libertarian scholar Hans Hermann Hoppe. They claim that the act of arguing for the initiation of aggression, as defined by the non-aggression principle is contradictory. Among these are Stephan Kinsella and Murray Rothbard.

Transcendental argument for the existence of God

Transcendental Argumenttranscendental argumentsTranscendental
The Transcendental Argument for the Existence of God (TAG) is the argument that attempts to prove the existence of God by arguing that logic, morals, and science ultimately presuppose a supreme being and that God must therefore be the source of logic and morals.

Presupposition (disambiguation)

In linguistics, a presupposition of a statement is a proposition which must be true in order for the statement to make sense.

False memory

false memoriesThe Mandela EffectMandela effect
Presuppositions are an implication through chosen language.

Computational semantics

Semanticssemantic computation
Some traditional topics of interest are: construction of meaning representations, semantic underspecification, anaphora resolution, presupposition projection, and quantifier scope resolution.


laden with theorytheory ladentheory-laden
theoretical presuppositions held by the investigator.

Reaction rate constant

rate constantrate constantsRate coefficients
[A] and [B] are the molar concentrations of substances A and B in moles per unit volume of solution, assuming the reaction is taking place throughout the volume of the solution.