Preterm birth

Pretermpremature birthprematurepremature infantspremature laborprematurelyprematuritypremature babiespreterm laborborn prematurely
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks' gestational age, as opposed to the usual about 40 weeks.wikipedia
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Infant

neonatalinfancynewborn
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks' gestational age, as opposed to the usual about 40 weeks.
In medical contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth; the term applies to premature, full term, and postmature infants; before birth, the term "fetus" is used.

Childbirth

laborbirthlabour
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks' gestational age, as opposed to the usual about 40 weeks.
About 15 million were born before 37 weeks of gestation, while between 3 and 12 percent were born after 42 weeks.

Cerebral palsy

palsycerebral palsy sufferersCP
Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and sight problems.
Risk factors include preterm birth, being a twin, certain infections during pregnancy such as toxoplasmosis or rubella, exposure to methylmercury during pregnancy, a difficult delivery, and head trauma during the first few years of life, among others.

Visual impairment

blindblindnessvisually impaired
Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and sight problems.
Visual impairment can also be caused by problems in the brain due to stroke, premature birth, or trauma among others.

Bed rest

rest curebedrestbed-rest
Evidence does not support the usefulness of bed rest.
Evidence is unclear if it affects the risk of preterm birth and due to potential side effects the practice is not routinely recommended.

Nifedipine

ProcardiaAdalatNifehexal
A number of medications, including nifedipine, may delay delivery so that a mother can be moved to where more medical care is available and the corticosteroids have a greater chance to work.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand name Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.

Neonatal infection

infectionsbacterial infectioninfection
In the U.S. where many neonatal infections and other causes of neonatal death have been markedly reduced, prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality at 25%.
There is a higher risk of infection for preterm or low birth weight neonates.

Apnea of prematurity

Apnea monitorinfant apnealack of breathing in premature babies
Apnea of prematurity is defined as cessation of breathing by a premature infant that lasts for more than 20 seconds and/or is accompanied by hypoxia or bradycardia.

Retinopathy of prematurity

retrolental fibroplasiacaused some babies to go blindeye disease in premature babies
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), also called retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) and Terry syndrome, is a disease of the eye affecting prematurely born babies generally having received intensive neonatal care, in which oxygen therapy is used on them due to the premature development of their lungs.

Hearing loss

deafdeafnesshearing impairment
Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and sight problems.
The World Health Organization also recommends immunization against measles, mumps, and meningitis, efforts to prevent premature birth, and avoidance of certain medication as prevention.

Pregnancy

pregnantfirst trimesterpregnant women
In those at risk, the hormone progesterone, if taken during pregnancy, may prevent preterm birth.
Babies born before 37 weeks are "preterm" and at higher risk of health problems such as cerebral palsy.

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

respiratory distress syndromehyaline membrane diseaserespiratory distress
This can lead directly to respiratory distress syndrome, also called hyaline membrane disease, in the neonate.
Infantile respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD), and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs.

Progesterone

EndometrinprogestationalProgesterone for prevention of preterm birth
In those at risk, the hormone progesterone, if taken during pregnancy, may prevent preterm birth.

Breastfeeding

breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
Once the baby is born, care includes keeping the baby warm through skin to skin contact, supporting breastfeeding, treating infections and supporting breathing.
Children who are born preterm have difficulty in initiating breast feeds immediately after birth.

Abortion

abortionsinduced abortionabort
The limit of viability has also become a factor in the abortion debate.
A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a live-born infant is a "premature birth" or a "preterm birth".

Patent ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosusductus arteriosus, patentAdult patent ductus arteriosus
Beside reducing respiratory distress, other neonatal complications are reduced by the use of glucocorticosteroids, namely intraventricular bleeding, necrotising enterocolitis, and patent ductus arteriosus.
PDA is common in newborns with persistent respiratory problems such as hypoxia, and has a high occurrence in premature newborns.

Nutrition

nutrition sciencenutritionalnutritional science
Adequate maternal nutrition is important.
In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

Gestational age

gestationgestationalweeks of gestation
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks' gestational age, as opposed to the usual about 40 weeks.
A preterm baby is likely to be premature and consequently faces increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

Bacterial vaginosis

vaginosisbacterial vaginitisNon-specific vaginitis
It also increases the risk of early delivery among pregnant women.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseaseceliac spruecoeliac
Women with celiac disease have an increased risk of the development of preterm birth.

Rickets

rachitisrachiticantirachitic
Congenital rickets may also be caused by other maternal diseases, including severe osteomalacia, untreated celiac disease, malabsorption, pre-eclampsia, and premature birth.

Placental abruption

abruptio placentaeabruptionabruptio placenta
While bleeding in the third trimester may be a sign of placenta previa or placental abruption – conditions that occur frequently preterm – even earlier bleeding that is not caused by these conditions is linked to a higher preterm birth rate.
Complications for the baby can include fetal distress, low birthweight, preterm delivery, and stillbirth.

In vitro fertilisation

IVFin vitro fertilizationin-vitro fertilization
Pregnancies after IVF confers a greater risk of preterm birth than spontaneous conceptions after more than 1 year of trying, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.55 (95% CI 1.30-1.85).
Multiple births are related to increased risk of pregnancy loss, obstetrical complications, prematurity, and neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage.

Passive smoking

second-hand smokesecondhand smokeenvironmental tobacco smoke
Passive smoking and/or smoking before the pregnancy influences the probability of a preterm birth.

Intraventricular hemorrhage

Intraventricular haemorrhagebleeding into the brain's ventriclesintraventricular
IVH in the preterm brain usually arises from the germinal matrix whereas IVH in the term infants originates from the choroid plexus.